FMSF NEWSLETTER ARCHIVE - March/April 2003 - Vol. 12, No. 2, HTML version

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F M S   F O U N D A T I O N   N E W S L E T T E R     (e-mail edition)
March/April  2003 Vol. 12  No. 2
ISSN #1069-0484.           Copyright (c) 2003  by  the  FMS Foundation
        The FMSF Newsletter is published 6 times a year by  the
        False  Memory  Syndrome  Foundation.  The newsletter is 
        mailed to anyone  who contributes at least $30.00. Also
              available at no cost on
           1955 Locust Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103-5766
                 Phone 215-940-1040, Fax 215-940-1042
  Adriaan Mak
    Legal Corner                        The next issue will be 
      From Our Readers                       May/June 2003
        Articles Available on Web
          Bulletin Board

Dear Friends,

In a recently published paper, Harvard psychologist Richard McNally,
Ph.D., asks a question that surely perplexes us all:

  "What is most bizarre about this debate is that proponents on both
  sides appeal to the same scientific studies to support their
  diametrically opposed positions. How is this possible? [1]

Fortunately, McNally also gives an answer:

  Anyone who actually reads the contested studies, however, will
  immediately realize that the most influential advocates of the
  traumatic amnesia position misunderstand much of the science they

A barrage of recent articles and reviews in the popular press
illustrates the spread from misunderstanding to understanding.

  The plaintiff "repressed the memories -- a response typical to
  people alleging abuse from their teen and pre-teen years,"[2] The
  suit claims he "repressed memories of the abuse until recently when
  they emerged during meetings with his psychologist."[3] "Penny's
  trauma began shortly after her conception, and apparently fractured
  her developing personality."[4] "Coming to acceptance that the abuse
  really happened takes time. The first step is having the courage to
  allow the memories to come."[5]

  "The vividness of false memories also can produce intense
  physiological symptoms similar to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
  when relived."[6] "It is sensory details that people use to
  distinguish their memories. If you imbue the story with them, you'll
  disrupt this memory process. It's almost a recipe to get people to
  remember things that aren't true."[7]

Fortunately, far more stories with accurate information crossed our
desk than melodramatic stories of MPD. In part that was because the
media flocked to new results reported by Elizabeth Loftus and Richard
McNally and others at the meeting of the American Association for the
Advancement of Science in Denver on February 16. Will advocates of the
traumatic amnesia position incorporate the new findings in their
understanding of how memory works or will they find excuses to ignore

According to social psychologist Carol Tavris[8], the outlook isn't
good. She notes that the "split between the research and practice
wings of psychology has grown so wide that many psychologists now
speak glumly of the `scientist-practitioner gap.'"

Lauren Slater explores the gap between research and practice within
the context of trauma treatment in an article in the New York Times
Magazine.[9] She notes that research simply does not support the kind
of treatment that focuses on talking about and reliving trauma. (If
the kind of therapy our children received is bad for people who have
actually experienced trauma, imagine its effect on those who did not
have the experience in the first place!) Rather, research shows that
people who "repress" their thoughts do better. But note that the
author defines "repressors" as those who "minimize, distract or deny."
There is plenty of evidence for minimizing, distracting or denying as
normal processes of memory. The "repression" that has been the focus
of the recovered memory controversy is a hypothesis. Slater writes:

  "Dr. Bessel van der Kolk, for example, hypothesized that repressed
  trauma has very specific neural correlates in the brain. The event
  -- say, the rape, the plane crash -- is isolated, flash-frozen in a
  nonverbal neural stream, where it stays stuck, secreting its
  subterranean signals of fear and panic. The goal of trauma treatment
  has been to move memories from nonverbal brain regions to verbal
  ones, where they can be integrated into the life story. This, to my
  mind, is a beautiful theory, one that blesses the brain with
  malleable storage sites and incredible plot power -- but whether
  it's true or not, no one knows."

Slater notes that therapists, however, are not likely to be swayed by
the lack of evidence:

  "The Courage to Heal, a book by Ellen Bass and Laura Davis about
  trauma and talk, has sold more than 700,000 copies. Dr. Judith
  Herman, the director of training at the Victims of Violence Program
  at Cambridge Hospital, in her updated book Trauma and Recovery,
  continues to advocate narrative and catharsis."

Why the gap between research and practice in the trauma field? Could
it be related to the fact that there is less work for therapists if
people get better from traumas by themselves? Yet, this could be an
opportunity to redirect mental health services to other populations in
need of help. Susan Clancy, a Research Fellow at Harvard is blunt.
She wrote, "Proponents of this theory need to spend less time talking
with relatively affluent patients seeking explanation for their
psychological distress and more time talking to real victims of
childhood sexual abuse -- people who often lack the resources to seek

A desperately needed review and synthesis of the research literature
relating the effects of stress, suggestion, and trauma on memory will
be available this month. Remembering Trauma by Richard McNally is a
major work that also exposes the errors in interpretation and facts
that have been made by proponents of traumatic amnesia. McNally is a
clinician who is also a laboratory researcher. Remembering Trauma
[11] begins with his conclusions:

  * "First, people remember horrific experiences all too well. Victims
  are seldom incapable of remembering their trauma.

  * "Second, people sometimes do not think about disturbing events for
  long periods of time, only to be reminded of them later. However,
  events that are experienced as overwhelmingly traumatic at the time
  of their occurrence rarely slip from awareness.

  * "Third, there is no reason to postulate a special mechanism of
  repression or dissociation to explain why people may not think about
  disturbing experiences for long periods. A failure to think about
  something does not entail an inability (amnesia) to remember it."

Those conclusions are what the data show. The work that still needs to
be done is to disseminate that information. For example, as you read
this issue you will see that at least three states are considering
extending the statutes of limitations to allow those who "repressed"
their memories of child sexual abuse to bring lawsuits. Extending the
limitations is one issue, and it can be debated. Having a provision
that would allow unreliable evidence is another matter. Robert
Rosenthal reminds us that, "One of the most critical constitutional
rights assured every defendant is the right to be prosecuted only by
reliable evidence."[12] Apparently, some legislators have not received
the facts about remembering trauma.

In the legal section of this issue there is a reminder of the
potential for horrible damage to patients when therapists ignore
research. It is also a reminder that they may be held accountable for
any damage that results. And in the letters section there is the sad
story of Paul Ingram who has spent the last decade in prison because
of legal ignorance about remembering trauma.

There is still important educational work that needs your help. We
have the tools from scientific research. We must all continue to use
them to close the gaps in understanding about traumatic memories.


[1] McNally, R., "Progress and Controversy in the Study of
    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder." Annual Review of Psychology
    (2003) 54, 229-252. (See page 3)
[2] Sanderford, A., "Ex-York student alleges sexual abuse," Lincoln
    Journal Star, Feb. 1, 2003.
[3] Thompson, L., "2 brothers suing Catholic Diocese of S.L.," Deseret
    News, Feb. 19, 2003.
[4] Taggart, C., "Plagued by 47 personalities," Spokane
    Spokesman-Review, Jan. 26, 2003.
[5] Nixon, K., "Advice column," Courier Mail (Australia), Feb 7, 2003.
[6] Staff, "False memories easy to foster in witnesses," Times
    Monitor, Feb. 24, 2003.
[7] Verrengia, J., "Researchers find it's easy to plant false memories
    in minds of some people," Associated Press, Feb 16, 2003.
[8] Tavris, C., "Psychological warfare between therapists and
    scientists," Chronicle of Higher Education, Feb 28, 2003, B7-9.
[9] Slater, L. "Repress Yourself," New York Times Magazine, Feb. 23,
    2003, 48-53.
[10] Clancy, S. A., "Letter," Washington Post, Feb. 25, 2003.
[11] McNally, R., Remembering Trauma, Harvard University Press,
    available March 25, 2003. (ISBN 0674 010 825).
[12] Rosenthal, R., "Suggestibility, reliability, and the legal
    process," Developmental Review 22 (2002), 334-369.

        |                   SPECIAL THANKS                   |
        |                                                    |
        |   We extend a very special `Thank you' to all of   |
        |  the people who help prepare the FMSF Newsletter.  |  
        |                                                    |
        |  EDITORIAL SUPPORT: Toby Feld, Allen Feld, Janet   |
        |           Fetkewicz, Howard Fishman, Peter Freyd   |
        |  COLUMNISTS: August Piper, Jr. and members         |
        |           of the FMSF Scientific Advisory Board    |
        |  LETTERS and INFORMATION: Our Readers              |


                         Jones, Edgar et al.,
          British Journal of Psychiatry (2003) 182, 158-163

Is Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) a timeless condition,
existing before it was codified in modern diagnostic classifications,
or is it a novel presentation resulting from modern interaction
between trauma and culture? Flashbacks are considered one of the core
symptoms of PTSD. If PTSD is timeless, therefore, mention of
flashbacks should be reflected across time.
    The authors examined a random selection of war pension files of UK
servicemen from 1854 onward to evaluate the incidence of flashbacks.
The results showed that the incidence of flashbacks was significantly
greater in veterans of the 1991 Persian Gulf War. The authors found
that "flashbacks were conspicuous by their absence in ex-servicemen
from the Boer War and the First and Second World Wars." They found
that in the earlier wars there was a greater emphasis on somatic
    The authors noted that the results imply that the "psychopathology
of trauma is not static and that culture has an impact on the
expression of distressing memories. There is no single way for human
beings to respond" to terrifying events.

/                                                                    \
| "The scientific illiteracy of psychotherapists has torn up         |
| families, sent innocent defendants to prison, cost people their    |
| jobs and custody of their children, and promoted worthless, even   |
| harmful therapies. A public unable to critically assess            |
| psychotherapists' claims and methods for scientific credibility    |
| will be vulnerable to whatever hysterical epidemic comes along     |
| next. And in our psychologically oriented culture, there will be   |
| many nexts. Some will be benign; some will merely cost money; and  |
| some will cost lives.                                              |
|                                                                    |
|                                                      Carol Tavris  |
|         "Psychological warfare between therapists and scientists"  |
|                       Chronicle of Higher Education, Feb 28, 2003  |

                       PROGRESS AND CONTROVERSY

                          Richard J. McNally
            Annual Review of Psychology (2003) 54, 229-252

McNally set out to examine the evidence on the most contentious issues
in the field of traumatic stress studies. He noted first that PTSD is
unusual in that the diagnostic criteria specify that a person must be
exposed to a traumatic stressor to receive the diagnosis, regardless
of whatever symptoms may exist. He then provided examples of how the
DSM-IV expanded the notion of "stressor" so that a person who learns
merely that someone else had been threatened with harm might qualify
as having been exposed to trauma.
    The prevailing view of PTSD is that the more severe the stressor,
the more severe the symptoms, a "dose-response" mode. Although some
research results have supported this model, other research fails to do
so. The relationship is not straightforward, yet any non-linear
pattern is theoretically unsatisfactory.
    The fact that recent studies have demonstrated that people recall
trauma differently at different periods of time is a problem in the
PTSD field. Although it was once believed that emotional memories are
indelible, it appears that even recollections of the most horrific
events may alter with time. If trauma memories are reconstructed, they
suffer the problems of any reconstructed memories.
    There is disturbing evidence that many veterans appear to have
deliberately exaggerated symptoms in order to obtain a PTSD diagnosis.
Data indicate that 94% of veterans with PTSD apply for compensation
for the illness and significant financial loss if they should recover.
Additionally, there is the problem of "phony combat vets." In Stolen
Valor, B.G. Burkett and Glenna Whitley documented many cases in which
men who had never served in the military or who were not in combat
claimed to be suffering from PTSD. Burkett and Whitley believe that
many studies of combat-related PTSD are contaminated by the inclusion
of these people. If this is the case, it means that much of the
research in the field is not reliable.
    The author noted that only a minority of people exposed to trauma
ever develop PTSD. To find out why this is so, research has looked at
"risk factors," but this research has been highly criticized as
blaming the victim. Although there is a need for prospective studies,
archival data has shown that higher intelligence protects against
    Claims that traumatic stress damages the brain -- and, in
particular, causes a smaller hippocampus -- have abounded in recent
years. When McNally examined this claim, he found solid contradictory
evidence. Indeed, twin studies have shown a strong genetic influence
on hippocampal size, and it may be that a small hippocampus makes one
vulnerable for PTSD if exposed to trauma.
    The most contentious claim in the field concerns the accuracy of
recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse. McNally wrote: 

  "What is most bizarre about this debate is that proponents on both
  sides appeal to the same scientific studies to support their
  diametrically opposed positions. How is this possible? Anyone who
  actually reads the contested studies, however, will immediately
  realize that the most influential advocates of the traumatic amnesia
  position misunderstand much of the science they cite."

The author provided examples of misunderstanding from Brown, Scheflin,
and Hammond's Memory, Trauma Treatment, and the Law (1998), a book
that was awarded a prize by the American Psychiatric Association.
 McNally concluded the article with illustrations to show the importance
of keeping a "firewall" between politics and the study of trauma.

/                                                                    \
| "The real significance of the 124 postconviction DNA exonerations  |
| is what we can learn about the rest of the criminal justice        |
| system. All the causes of wrongful convictions are at play:        |
| mistaken identifications, false confessions, police and            |
| prosecutorial misconduct, bad lawyers, junk forensic science."     |
|                                                    Barry C. Scheck |
|                                             New York Times Science |
|                                                      Feb. 25, 2003 |


                           Robert Rosenthal
                Developmental Review 22 (2002) 334-369

Attorney Robert Rosenthal's purpose in writing this article was "to
help lawyers and expert witnesses understand how well-established
legal principles demand the exclusion of suggestion-induced
accusations in child abuse cases just as they do suggestion-induced
    The article summarized the scientific literature showing how
suggestive interview techniques may corrupt children's reports. This
is followed by the legal arguments that can be used to defend against
allegations that arise as a result of suggestive interviews. Rosenthal
also provided specific arguments and procedural mechanisms to
challenge the use of "suggestion-tainted testimony" by the child as
well as hearsay testimony based on a child's "tainted" statements.
    Although anyone involved in defending a legal case based on
suggestive interviews of a child will find this article of immense
importance, a more general audience will also find the conclusion of
interest. This is a rebuttal to criticisms of courtroom use of
research about the problems of suggestive interviews.
    One argument is that children are a special class of witness. In
response, Rosenthal noted first that the focus should be on the
suggestive methods that could influence either an adult or a child.
Second, he emphasized that a criminal trial is a forum for deciding
the guilt or innocence of an individual and that the Constitution
requires that unreliable evidence be excluded. Third, the research has
not shown that children as a class are unreliable or should not be
believed. Indeed, they should be believed unless they have been
subjected to tactics that could erode accuracy regardless of
age. (Emphasis added.)
    Another argument is that the research highlights atypical
cases. This argument fails for two reasons: the first: unless there
are electronic recordings of a representative sample of interviews
nationwide, there is no way to know what is "typical" of most
investigators; and the second: even if most interviews are not
suggestive, it is irrelevant to any individual case.
    The argument that the research should not be admitted because of
lack of ecological validity or conflicting results is no longer
relevant. The body of research satisfies the Daubert requirements for
admission and has widespread acceptance in the scientific community.
    Does the admission of suggestibility research in court bring
needless litigation through appeals? The argument that it does
"ignores the fact that the Constitution provides protection from
conviction by unreliable evidence." If the prosecution provides video
evidence of a proper interview and of a proper investigation, there
will be no need for taint hearings and appeals. "A defendant whose
conviction is based on unreliable evidence, whether it is a tainted
eyewitness identification, hypnotically induced testimony, or
accusations elicited through suggestive interviews, is entitled to
    Some have argued that the admission of suggestibility research
derails child abuse prosecutions. They argue that it makes it more
difficult to obtain a conviction. This argument favors convictions in
child abuse cases regardless of whether the accusation is
reliable. Rosenthal concluded:
    "Research literature shows that cross-examination cannot
distinguish accurate reports from those wholly created by suggestive
questioning. Yet, some commentators argue that guilt or innocence
should be determined by a jury charged with the impossible task of
making an assessment as to the veracity of a child's
suggestion-induced accusations.
    "But our judicial system is based on the Constitution and is
designed to apply the law with an even hand, providing an assurance of
fundamental fairness, equal protection, and due process to every
defendant, regardless of the particular passions or prejudices of any
given moment. Just as the law does not permit children who have been
victimized to be ignored, it does not allow unequal access to
constitutional protections."

/                                                                    \ 
| "Thus, the "imagination inflation" phenomenon suggests that        |
| witnesses who are testifying about events that are not recent,     |
| that were never encoded deeply, or were without rich imaging and   |
| contextual embedding will be particularly susceptible to memory    |
| distortion or creation through the use of imagination based        |
| techniques."                                                       |
|                                     Davis, D. & Follette, W.C. |
|       "Foibles of Witness Memory for Traumatic/High ProfileEvents" |
|                                         66 J.Air L. & Com.1421 |

                       A REVIEW OF THREE CASES

                    Kaplan, R. & Manicavasagar, V.
      Comprehensive Psychiatry 42 (4) Jul/August, 2001, 342-348

How many times have readers of the Newsletter heard that there is no
such thing as False Memory Syndrome because it is not listed in the
DSM-IV? After describing three case reports, Kaplan and Manicavasagar
argued that there is sufficient scientific evidence for FMS to warrant
its inclusion in the manual as a condition meriting further study.
They would call the diagnosis "factitious disorder" with subcategory
"false memories/beliefs of abuse" that has been "induced by therapy."
Following are the features that they wrote are typical of FMS:

  1. The retrieval of memories of sexual abuse, usually but not always
  occurring in early childhood, in the course of therapy without any
  pre-existing awareness in the patient.

  2. Retrieval of dense and extensive memories occurring before the
  age of 4 years.

  3. Association with claims of satanic ritual abuse or Dissociative
  Identity Disorder.

  4. Claims of extensive sexual abuse which went on without discovery
  by other sources or without other corroborative evidence.

  5. Absence of medical or forensic confirmation of abuse.

  6. Presence of somatization or borderline personality disorder.

  7. Evidence of suggestion during therapy and/or use of hypnosis or
  related techniques.

The authors stated:

  "Precisely because child sexual abuse is such a devastating
  experience, a situation in which false accusations of sexual abuse
  become accepted as genuine will have enormous, if not shattering,
  consequences for families. Furthermore, when the revelation of CSA
  becomes public, the welter of ambivalence, confusion, divided
  loyalties, misguided pressures, and directed questioning can lead to
  false as well as truthful accusations. While it is the province of
  the law to determine the truth of an accusation of sexual abuse, it
  is very much the business of psychiatry and psychology when false
  accusations arise specifically as a result of misguided, if not
  egregious, therapeutic practices."

                            by Adriaan Mak

                        A review of the paper:

  "Self-reports of forgetting and remembering childhood sexual abuse
        in a nationally representative sample of U.S. women."

                  by Sharon C. Wilsnack et al.(2002)
                 Child Abuse and Neglect 26, 139-147.

The purpose of the study was to describe patterns of forgetting and
remembering childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in a national representative
sample. Respondents were a national probability sample of 711 US women
aged between 26 and 54.
    I thought that the information in this article might be useful to
families. The age range in the sample was similar to the age of
accusers in the more than 22,000 reports to the FMS Foundation. Many
parents had no idea of the cause of the false allegation. Some
reported that suggestive therapy for a mid-life problem was a factor
and others knew that the accuser had been reading suggestive self-help
literature, most often the bestseller; The Courage to Heal. Retractors
have confirmed that highly suggestive practices were used in the
creation of false memories if incest.
    Because therapists, who believe that memories of incest often
reside in some hidden recess of the mind, have told us that they did
not communicate their beliefs, or even suggest that their clients
search for incest memories, I hoped that this research would shed
light on that issue.
    The researchers first asked the women general questions about
whether they had been sexually abused and if so the nature of abuse,
age, and so forth. 106 indicated that they had been abused.(14.9%)
    To their credit, the authors used a representative sample, but
there are many flaws in this study such as the fact that the ages at
which the abuse was supposed to have taken place are not reported and
hence, we do not know if some reports were from the period of
childhood amnesia. Most seriously, however, the researchers did not
confirm the validity of the self-reports so that little can be
concluded from this study. However, it is interesting to look at the
authors' interpretations of the results.
    The subjects reporting histories of abuse were grouped according
to whether they reported familial (F) or extrafamilial (E) abuse. They
were asked to describe their memory for the abuse with one of these

  (1) I have always remembered it. [79% F; 66.4% E]
  (2) I forgot it for a while, but began to remember it on my own,
  without information from family, friends or professionals. 
  [26.5% F; 31.2% E]
  (3) Remembered with help from family [0}
  (4) A counselor, doctor, psychotherapist or some other professional
  helped to me remember it while I was receiving professional
  treatment [1.6% F; 2.4% E]
  (5) Don't remember [0]

The authors compared the response of options 2 and 4 and concluded
that their study provides "clear evidence that therapist-assisted
`recovery' of childhood sexual abuse memories did not occur at the
high levels previously estimated or reported." Does it?
    One could just as well read something quite different in that
"low" figure. If in a national representative sample 3 out the 711
women "recovered" memories of CSA with the help of a professional, it
could mean that out of the 59.5 million U.S. women, (the 1996 number
of females between 26 and 54) there were 251,055 women with
therapeutically enhanced confabulations of childhood sexual abuse or
more than 12 times the numbers of reports of false accusations to the
FMSF since 1992.


   Olfson, M., Marcus, S.C., Druss, B., & Pincus, H.A. (Nov. 2002)
                   Am J. Psychiatry, 159:1914-1920

According to the authors, "the pattern of psychotherapy utilization in
the United States underwent several important changes during the
decade [from 1987 to 1997]. The use of long-term psychotherapy
declined overall, and the use of psychotropic medications increased.
At the same time, some socioeconomically disadvantaged groups
increased their use of psychotherapy, and individuals with severe
mental disorders accounted for an increasing share of long-term
patients. These changes occurred in the context of advances in
psychopharmacological treatments, development of tools for rapid
diagnosis, changing public attitudes toward mental health care
treatment, and major revisions in the organization and financing of
mental health services." The authors also noted that the effects of
commonly available psychotherapies on patient outcomes remain poorly

/                                                                    \
| Do you have to be (messed) up to qualify as an interesting person? |
| And where does that leave the less fortunate among us? We who have |
| not suffered abuse; who didn't grow up in some dirtball town or a  |
| soul-deadening suburb? Where's our material?                       |
|                                                                    |
| When people around us bond over their parents' divorces or share   |
| transactional-analysis horror stories, we get left out. No one     |
| wants to hear about happy high school years or a fun family trip   |
| to Spain. The American culture of recovery subliminally promotes   |
| the belief that nondysfunctional people are boring.                |
|                                      Rick Marin in Bazaar magazine |
|                    reprinted San Francisco Chronicle, May 31, 2000 |

                   CITY OF WENATCHEE FINED $718,000

Spokane County Superior Judge Michael Donohue has fined the city of
Wenatchee, Washington for withholding crucial documents during a
lawsuit about its discredited child-abuse investigations. The amount
is believed to be the largest sanction ever levied by a judge in
Washington State for abuse of discovery rules.
    The judge awarded the money to the lawyers who represented Roby
and Connie Roberson in their suit against the city to pay for a new
trial. Forty-three adults were arrested and 28 were jailed in the
investigations headed by Bob Perez, Wenatchee police investigator. The
allegations of sex orgies came primarily from two sisters who were
foster children in Perez's home. Roberson and others had sued the city
for negligence and lost. When it was later discovered that the city
had withheld critical information about Perez, Judge Donohue ordered a
new trial.
    According to an article in Wenatchee World, the Association of
Washington Cities, the insurance pool for Washington's cities and
towns, will pay the costs if Wenatchee loses an appeal of the
decision. However, members of Roberson's legal team say that even if
the fines are covered, the city's taxpayers could ultimately be
responsible for for millions of dollars in legal costs.

Barber, M., "City of Wenatchee fined $621,461, "Seattle Post
   Intelligencer, Jan. 7, 2003.
Martinez, M., "City likely to appeal judge's sex-abuse case ruling,"
   Wenatchee World, Jan. 7, 2003.
Smith, L., "Sex-abuse case plaintiffs win new trial: Penalties against
   city for withholding evidence to grow to more than $733.000."
   Wenatchee World, Jan. 9, 2003.
Staff, "Justice gets another chance in Wenatchee," Seattle Post
   Intelligencer, Jan. 14, 2003.


Proposed legislation in Wisconsin would allow victims to sue religious
organizations that should have known that a clergy member had previous
sexual contact with a minor and did not try to prevent it from
happening again.
    The bill would also expand the existing statute of limitations for
prosecuting certain crimes against children from age 31 to age 35.
Under the proposed legislation, victims of certain crimes against
children would be allowed to bring a civil action before reaching age
26 or within five years of discovering the injury, whichever came
later. The provision would cover those with repressed memories who
recall abuse after reaching age 26.

Schneider, P., "Legislation aims to let clergy abuse victims sue,"
   Capital Times, Madison, WI, Jan. 11, 2003.

                         IN CHILD ABUSE CASES

Legislators in Maryland may extend the statute of limitations in child
abuse cases. According to the Baltimore Sun, a house bill has been
sponsored by Brian McHale because victims who are his constituents and
friends were unable to bring civil suits in a particular case. Also
introduced is a senate bill that "would allow a victim to file suit
until the age of 33. But if the victim did not know it was possible to
bring a civil suit -- in a case of repressed memory, for example --
victims would have up to 12 years after the point at which they should
have known legal action was possible." The language of HB 165 states
that the change "applies to the time limitations regardless of the
theory of recovery."

Rivera, J., "MD bills seek to lengthen limit on filing of sex-abuse
   civil suits," Baltimore Sun, Feb. 9, 2003.


Legislators in Washington State have introduced House Bill 1040 that
would remove the statute of limitations on childhood sexual abuse
civil cases. Under current law, plaintiffs must file lawsuits within
three years of the abuse, within three years of the discovery of the
effects of the abuse, or within three years of the victim's 18th
birthday, whichever comes later.
    According to one of the bill's sponsors, Rep. Al O'Brian, it was
drafted partly in reaction to recent reports of sexual abuse by Roman
Catholic priests.
    An editorial in the News Tribune (Tacoma, WA) argues that: "Some
extension of the time limits to file a sexual abuse lawsuit could be
warranted. Young victims of sexual abuse often repress memories of the
traumatic event -- or events -- for decades..."

Editorial, "Clergy should be required to report child abuse; Extend
   deadline for filing sex abuse lawsuits," News Tribune (Tacoma),
   Jan. 30, 2003.
Gelineau, K,, "Bill would end statute of limitations on sex abuse
   civil cases," Associated Press, Jan. 22, 2003.


Utah HB 05 was passed by the House of Representatives 68-2 on January
31, 2003. However, it has stalled in the Senate. According to attorney
Christopher Barden, one senator in particular believes that his
neighbor was "healed" by holding therapy.
    Barden called for the ban on restraint therapies after the death
of Candace Newmaker in Colorado last year. The therapist in that case
was sentenced to prison for 16 years. Since then, according to Barden,
proponents of holding therapies have been trying to make Utah a center
for the practice.
    Several professional organizations, including the American
Psychiatric Association, and the Utah Psycholog-ical Association have
issued statements about the dangers of restraint therapies. These can
be found on the following website:

Santini, J. "Lawmakers butt heads over bills to address restraint
   therapies," Salt Lake Tribune, Feb. 14, 2003.  c

                       L E G A L   C O R N E R
                              FMSF Staff
                         Update of Tyo v Ross
In 1998, former patient Martha Tyo brought a lawsuit against Colin A.
Ross, M.D., and others who had treated her. That lawsuit has concluded
in a confidential settlement for an undisclosed amount. (A description
of the case is reprinted from the October, 1998, FMSF Newsletter.)
    It is reported that the terms were "very favorable" to
Ms. Tyo. Once the depositions of the treating doctors were taken, it
was obvious to their lawyers that no defense existed. It has been
subsequently reported that one defendant therapist left the state and
another "retired" from practicing psychotherapy. Lawyers for the
plaintiff were R. Chris Barden of N. Salt Lake, Utah, and Stanley,
Mandel & Iola of Dallas, Texas.
    This case provided another example of conducting science-intensive
litigation via experienced multidisciplinary teams.

       The Case: From FMSF Newsletter, October 1998, Vol 7 (8)
                Professional Negligence Charges Filed
                   Against Well-Known Psychiatrist
                   Tyo v. Ash, et al and Colin Ross
        District Court, Dallas Co., Texas, No. DV98-3843.[1]
Colin A. Ross, M.D. is being sued in Texas for allegedly planting and
encouraging false memories of satanic abuse in a former patient. A
50-page Complaint filed in July 1998 by Martha Ann Tyo against four of
her former therapists,[2] including Colin Ross, and against two Texas
hospitals [3] alleges negligence, fraud, fraudulent concealment, and
conspiracy to commit fraud. Defendants are charged with negligence in
failing to carefully evaluate Ms. Tyo's symptoms or to properly treat
her; in alienating Ms. Tyo from her family, her husband, and her
children; in failing to advise her of the questionable nature of the
therapeutic treatments utilized; and in reinforcing the emerging
"memories" as true. All defendants are also charged with fraudulent
conduct which sought to extract from Tyo and from her medical
insurance carrier the maximum amount of money available under her
insurance policy.
   The Complaint states that Mrs. Tyo first sought treatment from
defendant Kathleen Stanley for assistance with marital problems and
depression. Using suggestive and hypnotic techniques, Stanley
regressed Tyo to a childlike state to let the "inner child" speak and
recall incidents of abuse. Stanley diagnosed bodily sensations as
"body memories" of abuse and encouraged Tyo to read The Courage to
Heal. Without any independent verification and without advising Tyo
that the techniques being used were capable of causing false beliefs,
Stanley allegedly affirmed to Tyo that her "memories" were true and
that she would have to uncover and relive all her "memories" before
her condition would improve.
   Stanley later referred Tyo to another therapist, Stephen Ash, who
is described in the Complaint as a "cult specialist." According to
the Complaint, Ash evaluated Tyo using only a Rorschach test. Based on
that test he concluded that she had MPD, which would require at least
7-10 years of therapy. Prior to this time, Tyo had never been
diagnosed as having any type of dissociative disorder. The Complaint
describes suggestive and coercive techniques, including hypnosis, that
led Tyo to believe horrendous "memories" of sexual abuse, ritual
murders, and torture by members of her family. Ash, however, allegedly
never attempted to independently verify the "repressed memories" and
he never obtained any consultation regarding his diagnosis, despite
the fact that Tyo's condition only worsened under his care. Ash
explained to Tyo that her family was trying to draw her back into the
cult, using "triggers" that included greeting cards displaying colored
flowers. In an effort to "free" Tyo from the cult and rid her of her
"demon personalities," Ash allegedly performed exorcisms.
   At this time, according to the Complaint, Tyo became increasingly
distraught, depressed, and suicidal as a result of the therapy she had
received. She was hospitalized at Charter Hospital in Dallas but her
physical condition continued to deteriorate; she had not eaten solid
foods for about two weeks. While hospitalized, Tyo was introduced to
Colin Ross, M.D., who was the head of the MPD Unit at Charter and
Ash's supervisor. Tyo asked Ross for his help in determining whether
or not she had MPD and expressed her concern regarding Ash's
   Tyo began treatment with Ross and a counselor named Mary Grundman
in April 1992. The Complaint states that Grundman considered herself a
"Christian counselor" who identified several of Tyo's alleged alters
as God, the Archangel Michael and other angels who were working within
the body to fight the forces of Satan. At one point Tyo calculated
that over 200 alters or "fragment" alters had been
identified. According to the Complaint, Ross and Grundman both worked
to identify more alleged alters, as well as "fragment" alters. Some of
the alters were allegedly operatives in the cult, others were
allegedly the personalities that caused confusion and were the reason
why Tyo never suspected she had MPD prior to this time.
   Both Ross and Grundman allegedly conferred with the alters, even
with the alleged Satanists. In fact, the Complaint states, these
alters did not exist, and the false beliefs were the product of the
coercion and suggestion resulting from the improper techniques
employed by Ross and Grundman. According to the Complaint, Ross and
Grundman used these techniques without advising Tyo that they were
capable of causing false beliefs and memories of events which never
occurred. Neither Ross nor Grundman consulted with Tyo about the fact
that MPD and SRA were a subject of controversy within the therapeutic
community. Further, Ross and Grundman never obtained any consultation
regarding her diagnosis, despite the fact that Tyo's condition only
worsened under their care. They constantly reinforced the validity of
her "memories" of abuse at the hands of her family and the Satanic
cult. Ross and Grundman told Tyo that since she had already left the
cult once, she would most likely be sacrificed if she returned.
Throughout her therapy with Grundman, Grundman attributed Tyo's denial
of having been reprogrammed as due to "reprogramming."
   Even when Tyo asked Ross to educate her on methods of discerning
reality and how to live a normal life, Ross encouraged her to continue
working on identifying and integrating alters. Ross remained a
consultant regarding her progress in "integration" and continued to
treat Tyo with medication until April 1997.
   The Complaint also states that Ross led Tyo to believe she was a
danger to her children, so that she thought she was acting in their
best interest when she gave up all parental rights to her children.
Prior to starting therapy with Stanley, Tyo and her husband were
evaluated as part of adoption proceedings. At that time she was found
to be an acceptable parent for the three young children she and her
husband adopted.
   Plaintiff is represented by Mark H. Iola of Dallas and
R. Christopher Barden of Salt Lake City.

[1] See FMSF Brief Bank #204.
[2] Defendants include psychiatrist Kathleen Stanley, therapist
    Stephen Ash, Mary Grundman, L.P.C., and psychiatrist Colin Ross.
[3] Also named as defendants are Charter Behavioral Health System of
    Dallas, and CPC Millwood Hospital.

               Time Ran Out to Sue Priest in New Jersey
In 1994, Peter Pfister, 41, was one of nineteen plaintiffs in a civil
lawsuit against Msgr. Philip Rigney, 85, and the Roman Catholic
Diocese of Camden. Pfister claimed that Rigney sexually assaulted him
in 1975 and that he had repressed memory of the abuse until it came
back "in a flood of memories" during a psychotherapy session in
1993. The suit contends that church officials tolerated and concealed
such behavior for decades.
    Under New Jersey law, such suits must be filed by the time the
victim reaches 20. There is an exception for people who can show that
they did not understand the harm until years later or that duress,
insanity, or some other valid reason prevented them from filing
sooner. Lawyers for the diocese argued that Pfister and other
plaintiffs did not sue until after The Philadelphia Inquirer reported
that the diocese had paid $3.2 million to settle other sex-abuse
    Judge John G. Himmelberger Jr. of the Superior court in Atlantic
County, NJ ruled that in this case there would be no exception to the
statute of limitations and that Pfister had waited too long to file a
claim. He commented:

  "I simply am not convinced ... that there is such a phenomenon of
  repressed memory. I do not accept the notion that one can completely
  forget that which would otherwise be an unforgettable and traumatic
  event in one's life. Sexual molestation by a grown man -- a priest
  -- would be a traumatic event for a 14-year-old boy. It's hard to
  believe that such a boy would not remember it."

There is currently a measure pending in the New Jersey state
legislature that would extend the statute of limitations in sex-abuse

Phillips, N. "Judge rejects man's claim in priest sex-abuse lawsuit,"
   Philadelphia Inquirer, Nov. 5, 2002.

/                                                                    \
| EVIDENCE." [2]                                                     |
|                                                                    |
| 2. United States Constitution Amendments V, VI, and XIV. Federal   |
| and state case law have consistently upheld the principle that     |
| reliability is the linchpin of due process and that convictions    |
| built on unreliable evidence cannot stand. e.g., MARYLAND v.       |
| CRAIG, 497 US.836,110 S.Ct.  3157 (1990) ("the central concern of  |
| the Confrontation Clause is to ensure the reliability of the       |
| evidence against a defendant"); MANSON v. BRATHWAITE, 432 U.S.98;  |
| 97 S. Ct.2243 (1977) ("standard is that of fairness as required by |
| Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment....."); CALIFORNIA  |
| v. GREEN, 399 U.S. 149,90 S. Ct. 1930, (1970) (due process may     |
| prevent conviction where reliable evidentiary base is lacking);    |
| WRAY v. JOHNSON, 202 F. 3d 515 (2d Cir. 2000) (reliability of      |
| evidence is the primary determinant of admissibility); UNITED      |
| STATES v. MALDONADO-RIVERA, 922 F. 2d 934 (2d Cir. 1990); PEOPLE   |
| v. BLACKMAN, 488 N.T.S.2d 395 (1st Dept. 1985) ("fairness...       |
| certainly requires that the proponents of the evidence meet a      |
| threshold of at least minimum reliability").                       |
|                                                   Robert Rosenthal |
|               "Suggestibility, reliability, and the legal process" |
|                             Developmental Review 22 (2002) 334-369 |

                   F R O M   O U R   R E A D E R S

         News from the Netherlands Workgroup Fictive Memories
On January 20, a Rotterdam court ruled in a case in which an 80-year-
old father had lodged a complaint against his adult daughter. The
daughter had accused him of having sexually abused her from age four
to twenty-four. After therapy with a registered clinical psychologist,
she began to describe incest experiences in a published volume of
    The decision was as follows: This court

  * declares by law that the defendant acted illegally against the
  plaintiff by accusing the plaintiff, without offering proof, of
  having sexually abused the defendant;

  * prohibits the defendant from repeating to others that the
  plaintiff had sexually abused the defendant, on punishment of a sum
  of Euro 250, for each infringement of this prohibition, to a maximum
  of Euro 15.000;

  * stipulates that the prohibition is invalid for statements made to
  the defendants' counsel, spiritual advisor, or therapist.

  * orders the defendant within seven days after notice of this
  verdict to provide the plaintiff with a list containing the names
  and addresses of those who have received this volume of poetry, on
  punishment of a sum of Euro 250. For each day or part thereof for
  which the defendant fails to comply, to a maximum of Euro 15.000.

  * sentences the defendant to provide proof of discharge of having
  paid the sum of Euro 2500.
                                * * *

Members of the Workgroup Fictive Memories are concerned with the fact
that the problem between father and daughter was taken to court
because this likely caused a further hardening of their relationship.
The members hope, nevertheless, that this verdict will send the signal
that parents cannot be accused in public without a presentation of
proof. In this sense the verdict may also be of significance to the
psycho-therapeutic community.
                     News from Winnipeg, Manitoba
Our FMS support group is still active, though smaller than it once
was, and that is a good thing. Most of our families are reunited,
albeit with "returners." Nobody talks about what happened. They try to
carry on as before while still being conscious of the elephant in the
living room.
    We do not meet as we once did, with handouts, reprints from
newspapers, TV schedules listing false memory interviews, etc.; we
meet as a group of FMS friends who were there for us when we needed
them, who know us and our situations, and who understand. Real
    Our Christmas brunch was held on December 16 with hugs all around
and some healthy laughter. One thing we all agree on -- what would we
have done without the FMS Foundation?
    With sincere thanks to the Foundation and for the staff's
continued interest and enthusiasm. I pray that one day all our
daughters will "see the light."
                                                                 A Mom
                      Not Everyone is Reconciled
Eight years ago, when she was 21 years old, my daughter falsely
accused me of sexual abuse after she had "remembered" incidents from
when she was seven. I knew nothing about what was going on or the
therapy world until a friend told me about a program on NPR. That was
when I discovered the FMS Foundation. What a life and sanity saver!
    When I started meeting people who had been accused of more
horrific crimes and for over a longer period of time, I thought my
situation would resolve quickly. Little did I know that eight years
later nothing would be changed. I missed her graduation from college
and her marriage in addition to years that can never be replaced. The
only way I have managed to cope is to convince myself that my "true
daughter" no longer exists. I don't feel guilty for feeling this way;
I only feel a void, disappointment, and disgust.
    Would I accept her back in my life if she contacted me and
pretended that nothing ever happened? Probably not, because I would
not be sure if she was sincere in her actions. It appears I have had
to harden myself as a way of going on with my life in a positive
    To compound matters, my only son broke off communication with me
three years ago. There are no accusations, but he is very close to his
sister. He finally went to therapy himself.
    I often wonder where I would be without the help of the
Foundation. I'm sure many feel the same.
                                                              A Father
                       I've Asked No Questions
My daughter has been back for about four years (after being away for
five years), but she just acts as if those five years didn't exist. I
have asked no questions and I'm just waiting to see if the matter will
come up. I'm not sure if I can continue to be patient, but I don't
want to force the issue yet.
                                                                 A Mom
                     Waiting to Write This Letter
My wife and I have waited for four and a half years to write this
letter to you. There were many years when I thought it would never
happen. In January, my wife suffered a heart attack while playing
tennis. She is recovering very well from successful angioplasty. I
e-mailed our daughter about this as she was overseas. I told her that
I thought it was not a life-threatening situation and she need not
return. I really did not want her here as the situation was already
stressful enough. She insisted on coming.
    She came to our house the second week of January and had a long
discussion with her mom. I had gone out so as not to be home because I
found it too stressful.
    When I returned, she put her arms around me and sobbed, "Dad...I
was wrong...Can you ever forgive me?" I was, of course, stunned and
after some tears of my own said "Of course."
    She said she had started doubting her therapy a couple of months
ago. She is very fragile and is on Prozac. She is not the vibrant
daughter we once knew but has taken a very important step in reuniting
a shattered family
    We can't tell exactly how to explain this turn of events, but we
did decide last summer to move on with our lives with the rest of the
family. She realized she had lost all of us...her brother and sister
and her mom and me. Somewhere deep in there was a loving family. I
think she missed that more than her therapy family.
    We will always cherish you and our FMS friends who kept us
together and our hopes up. Thanks for helping us get our lives back.
                                                         A Mom and Dad
                            No Explanation
I am writing to update you with our situation. Feel free to include
it in the letters from parents, as that has always been a source of
hope and encouragement to me through our difficult years.
    We have been re-united with our daughter, her husband, and their
two children for two years now; it was a brave step for my husband (I
had been having contact for several years prior) to come to their
house to visit with the children. As soon as he did this, there was a
flood of visiting back and forth between their house and our
daughter's mother-in-law who had remained our friend and supporter
through this ugly period in our lives. Then they began coming to our
house, and we knew the terrible spell had been broken.
    There has never been an explanation by our daughter, and we have
asked no questions. It seems to follow the same path of so many
returning daughters: to be able to return without the shame of
admitting their mistakes or asking forgiveness. Our daughter's
mother-in-law, a very wise woman, always felt that we must make it
possible for her to return without explaining -- to save face.
Somewhere in the future, these women, damaged by tragic therapy may
gain the strength to open up to their families -- or maybe never.
    Whatever the future holds, we simply give thanks for the present
and the ability to know our grandchildren; too many years have passed
without them. We ask all separated families not to give up hope, and
to consider keeping a door open in their hearts for that time when a
reunion may be possible. The Foundation gave us the courage to
continue when we felt hopeless. We are proof that the return is
                                                         A Mom and Dad
                          Paul Ingram Update
Paul Ingram was eligible for early release in May, 2002. His
supporters have submitted a few different post-release plans for him
to the state. In any case, Paul's mandatory release will be in May,
    Paul lost his mother Elizabeth to cancer early this winter. Paul
has now lost both of his parents, who fought so hard on his behalf. I
will never forget the day I asked for their permission to begin an
organization on Paul's behalf.
 If you would like to contact Paul or send condolences, please send
them to me, and I will make sure he gets them.
                                               Daniel Brailey, Founder
                                                   Ingram Organization
                                                           PO BOX 7465
                                                     Spokane, WA 99207
                         Who is Paul Ingram?
The Paul Ingram case became well known in the late `80s when it was
cited as proof of the existence of satanic cults. Ingram was deeply
religious and a law enforcement officer. He initially confessed to
participating in satanic cult activities, although he later recanted
his confession. Why would someone confess to something he or she had
not done?
    Richard Ofshe, Ph.D., was brought into the case by the
prosecution, but he ended up testifying for the defense. Dr. Ofshe
explained that under intensive police interrogation, Paul Ingram had
come to believe his grown daughters' accusations of sexual abuse by
him and several friends. The daughters claimed that he was part of a
satanic group.
    Dr. Ofshe's investigation convinced him that Mr. Ingram was the
victim of false memories -- both his daughters' and his own. According
to Ofshe, Ingram believed he had repressed memories of what he had
done up to the moment of his arrest.
    Dr. Ofshe noted: "I decided to run an experiment. I invented a set
of facts: that one of his sons and one of his daughters told me he
made them have sex so he could watch. At first he said he couldn't
remember it. So I asked him to go through the steps that had helped
him remember the other charges. (Mr. Ingram's pastor and a
psychologist had told him that if he could picture something, it was
the beginnings of a repressed memory, and that if he `prayed on it,'
he would remember more.) I asked him to picture it and go back to his
cell to pray on it. The next day he told me he had a vivid memory of
the scene."
    The story of Paul Ingram, suggestibility, and false memories then
became the subject of a brilliant and influential New Yorker article
by Lawrence Wright[1]. What follows is an excerpt of an article
describing some of the Ingram story based on Wright's New Yorker
story. The article "Desperately Seeking Satan" by Barbara Grizzuti
appeared in Mirabella in December 1993. It was reprinted in the FMSF
Newsletter in January 1994.

  What gives Wright's story its horrific edge is the recognition that
  not only can anybody be accused but that one can become complicit in
  one's own victimization.

  When Paul R. Ingram, to all appearances a model citizen and deputy
  sheriff in a small Washington town, was accused of abuse by two of
  his adult daughters, he said, "I can't see myself doing this" -- a
  rather wispy denial, followed immediately by, "There may be a dark
  side of me that I don't know about." He was willing -- almost eager
  -- to accept guilt because, he said, he had a "hard time" hugging
  his kids "or even telling them that I love them, and...I just know
  that that's not natural." (The poor man learned his kiss-and-
  communicate pop-culture lessons well.) Ingram apparently believed
  that if he confessed, his memories would come back, along with
  contrition and forgiveness.

  Ingram declared, in spite of the fact that his daughters' stories
  were incoherent and inconsistent, that "my girls know me. They
  wouldn't lie about something like this." When he was asked to
  account for his "failure" of memory, he replied -- as a model talk
  -show guest might -- that he had probably been abused himself as a
  child. His daughters' stories escalated: they uncovered memories of
  their brothers -- and their mother -- being abused. And escalated:
  they were victims, they said, of a conspiracy of sex criminals who
  met for weekly poker games at the Ingram family home. There were
  orgies of self-disclosure and self-revulsion, as if everyone needed
  to be found guilty. At one point, Ingram said he was probably guilty
  of "emotional abuse," lack of communication and all that stuff talk
  shows routinely accuse us of. Ingram viewed his own parallel life,
  that life which up to now he had had no memory of, as if it were a
  horror movie; he entered a guilty plea to six counts of rape.
  (Ingram has since tried to withdraw his guilty plea, but the
  Washington State Supreme Court upheld his conviction; he is now
  serving a twenty-year sentence with no chance of parole until 2001.)

  Ingram was subjected to a kind of torture: during the long hours of
  his interrogation, he claims he was inculcated with the assurance
  that innocence -- denial of guilt -- was proof of guilt.

[1] Lawrence Wright, "Remembering Satan," New Yorker, Pt. 1, May 17
    1993, 60-81; Part 2 May 24, 1993, 54-76in May 1993.

/                                                                    \
|                         Handy Descriptions                         |
|                                                                    |
| When exposed for the horror it is, there is nothing to speak well  |
| for Recovered Memory Therapy as currently or historically          |
| practiced. Therefore, I am forwarding some of the descriptions     |
| which might be of use to you and others engaged in exposing and    |
| eliminating the horror of this form of fraudulent "therapy." The   |
| list is as follows                                                 |
|                                                                    |
|                        flagrant malpractice                        |
|                          purposeful waste                          |
|                        sadistic persecution                        |
|                       psychological "murder"                       |
|                        calculated chicanery                        |
|                         injurious practice                         |
|                          sanctioned fraud                          |
|                       professional insanity                        |
|                       legalized criminality                        |
|                        manufactured hatred                         |
|                         universal betrayal                         |
|                         abusive negligence                         |
|                          purposeful waste                          |
|                        sadistic persecution                        |
|                       psychological "murder"                       |
|                        calculated chicanery                        |
|                         injurious practice                         |
|                          sanctioned fraud                          |
|                       professional insanity                        |
|                       legalized criminality                        |
|                        manufactured hatred                         |
|                         universal betrayal                         |
|                       ignorant indifference                        |
|                      destructive manipulation                      |
|                      obliterated rationality                       |
|                         compromised logic                          |
|                         blatant arrogance                          |
|                        protected ignorance                         |
|                          ubiquitous greed                          |
|                          pernicious zeal                           |
|                        dangerous precedent                         |
|                        structured terrorism                        |
|                        deceptive persuasion                        |
|                         fractured justice                          |
|                                                                    |
| Interestingly, many of the adjectives can be exchanged with many   |
| of the nouns. Good luck.                                           |
|                                                   A Recovering Mom |


                            LEGAL INTEREST

DAVIS, D., LOFTUS, E. & FOLLETTE, W., "Commentary: How, when and
whether to use informed consent for recovered memory therapy," Journal
of American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 29, 2001. p 148-159.

GIORDANO, K., "False memory syndrome: As women bring lawsuits,
therapists are having to pay for their mistakes.", Dec. 22,

LIEF, H. I., "Patients versus therapists: Legal actions over recovered
memory therapy," Psychiatric Times XVI (11), Nov. 1999.

LOFTUS, E. F., & DAVIS, D., "Dispatch from the repressed memory legal
front." Psychiatric Times Vol. XIX Issue 4, 2002, p. 44-45, 50-51.

LOFTUS, E.F. & KETCHAM, K.,The Myth of Repressed Memory, New York: St.
Martin's Press, 1994, (Excerpt about the Franklin case).

HUNGERFORD V JONES, NH Supreme Ct , 3rd party.


BORCH-JACOBSEN, M., "Sybil -- The making of a disease: An interview
with Dr. Herbert Spiegel," New York Review, April 24, 1997. id=1199

LANNING, K.V., "Satanic Ritual Abuse" An FBI Report. Behavioral
Science Unit, National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime, 1992.

McHUGH, P. "Multiple Personality Disorder, (Dissociative Identity
Disorder), The Harvard Mental Health Letter, 10: (3), 4-6, Sept. 1993.

NATHAN, D., "What McMartin Started: The Ritual Sex Abuse Hoax" Village
Voice, 12, June 1993, p .37.

PENDERGRAST, M., "Multiple personalities and satanic cults," Excerpts
from Victims of Memory, Second edition, Upper Access, 1996.

UNDERWAGER, R. & WAKEFIELD, H., "Therapeutic Influence in DID and
recovered memories of sexual abuse," Issues in Child Abuse
Accusations, 8(3/4), 1996, p. 160-160.


Excerpt and review of Seven Sins of Memory by DANIEL SCHACTER.

GARRY, M., MANNING, C.G. & LOFTUS, E.F. & SHERMAN, S.J., "Imagination
Inflation: Imagining a childhood event inflates confidence that it
occurred," Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 3(2), 1996, p. 208-214.

KIHLSTROM, J.D. "Traumatic Memory: Not so very special after all?"

KIHLSTROM, J.F. "Is Freud Still Alive? No, Not Really."

LINDSAY, D. S. & READ, J.D., "Memory, remembering, and
misremembering," National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
PTSD Research Quarterly, 6 (1), 1995, p. 1-4.

LOFTUS, E.F., "Creating false memories" Scientific American, 277(3) ,
Sept. 1997, p.70-75.

LOFTUS, E.F.,  "Remembering Dangerously," Skeptical Inquirer, 19, 1995,

LOFTUS, E.F. & HOFFMAN, H.G.  "Misinformation and Memory, The Creation
of New Memories ," Journal of Experimental Psychology: General
118(1):100-104 (March 1989).

Interpretation and False Beliefs," Professional Psychology: Research
and Practice 30(1), Feb., 1999, 45-50).

MAZZONI, G.A.L, LOFTUS, E.F. & KIRSCH, I., "Changing beliefs about
implausibible autobiographical events: A little plausibility goes a
long way," Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 7(1), March,
2001, 51059.

McHUGH, P. G., "Psychiatric Misadventures" American Scholar. Autumn,
1992, p.497-510.

McNALLY, R. J., "Cognitive studies on people reporting recovered
memories of either childhood sexual abuse or abduction by space
aliens," In B. J. N. Schreuder (Ed.), De neurobiologische en klinische
aspecten van emotie en geheugen na psychotrauma (p. 1-7).  Leiden, The
Netherlands.  Leiden University Medical Center (Boerhaave Committee),

POPE, H.G. Editorial- "Recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse,"
British Medical Journal, p. 316:488-489, February, 14, 1998.

SINGER, M.T. (1979) "Coming Out of the Cults," Psychology Today,
January 1979.

*                           N O T I C E S                            *
*                                                                    *
*              ANNUAL MEETING OF ONTARIO AND QUEBEC                  *
*              FAMILIES, FRIENDS AND PROFESSIONALS                   *
*                                                                    *
*                Current Issues and Perspectives:                    *
*                       Where are we now?                            *
*                        Where do we go?                             *
*                                                                    *
*                     Saturday, June 7, 2003                         *
*                    Edward Gardens, Toronto                         *
*                                                                    *
*                        For details call                            *
*                     Mavis at 450-537-8187                          *
*                  e-mail:                       *
*                                                                    *
*                                                                    *
*                      RESTORATIVE JUSTICE                           *
*                                                                    *
* A "Healing Circle" focusing on healing conflicts within families   *
* and personal relations will feature Mark Pendergrast, author of    *
* Victims of Memory. This meeting is open to the public.             *
*                                                                    *
*                      May 3, 2003  9:00 AM                          *
*                         52 High Street                             *
*                       South Paris, Maine                           *
*                                                                    *
* A Healing Circle is similar in nature to the work of a family      *
* group conference or other victim-offender programs, with the       *
* notable difference being that there are no clear lines             *
* distinguishing victims.                                            *
*                                                                    *
* The program is sponsored by the Council on Reconciliation and      *
* Restorative Justice and Mark Pendergrast.                          *
*                                                                    *
*                                                                    *
*                        "ASK AN EXPERT,"                            *
*                       THIS AMERICAN LIFE                           *
*                         June 14, 2002                              *
*                                                                    *
*    About people who turned to experts and got horrible advice.     *
*        Features the Rutherfords and a retracting therapist.        *
*                                                                    *
*                                         *
*                                        *
*          Tapes: "Ask an Expert," # 215, 6/14/02, $12               *
*                    Producer: Elyse Spiegel                         *
*                                                                    *
*                                                                    *
*                       March 13-15, 2003                            *
*                        New Orleans, LA                             *
*Sponsored by the National Child Abuse Defense & Resource Center *
*                                                                    *
*         For More Information or Registration Material              *
*            NCADRC, P.O. Box 638, Holland, OH 43528                 *
*                       Fax# 419-865-0526                            *
*                                   *
*                                        *
*                                                                    *
*                                                                    *
*                       CRUELER TYRANNIES:                           *
*     Accusation, False Witness, and Other Terrors of Our Times      *
*                       Dorothy Rabinowitz                           *
*                                                                    *
* Wall Street Journal/Simon & Schuster (288 pp.) $25.00 Mar. 27, *
* 2003 Wall Street Journal editorial board member and Pulitzer-      *
* winner Rabinowitz revisits some of the most spectacular sexual-    *
* abuse trials of the 1980s -- and concludes the guilty verdicts     *
* were egregious miscarriages of justice.                            *
*                                                                    *
* She attacks the entire system that made these trials possible:     *
* overzealous police and prosecutors whose leading interviews of     *
* children prompted many outrageous accusations; professional        *
* child-abuse experts willing, even eager to testify for the state;  *
* the rapacious media; a public with a boundless appetite for the    *
* salacious; incompetent public defenders; and the whole notion that *
* children are innocent and must be believed.                        *
*                                   from Kirkus Review, Feb. 1, 2003 *
*                                                                    *
*                                                                    *
*                March 13-15, 2003    New Orleans, LA                *
*Sponsored by the National Child Abuse Defense & Resource Center *
*                                                                    *
*                         Thursday, March 13                         *
*                                                                    *
*                         BRUCE LYONS, J.D.                          *
*          Overview and Current Trends in Child Abuse Cases          *
*                      JUDGE JAMES BARBER, J.D.                      *
*                   Educating Your Resistant Judge                   *
*                      JUDGE ROBERT KERN, J.D.                       *
*         Ethical Obligations in Defending Abuse Allegations         *
*                         BARRY SCHECK, J.D.                         *
*                        DNA and Other Issues                        *
*                         LYNN MASKEL, M.D.                          *
*         Defending Juvenile Offenders Accused of Sex Abuse          *
*                     MELVIN GUYER, J.D., Ph.D.                      *
*        Use and Misuse of Psychological Tests in the Courts         *
*        MARGARET-ELLEN PIPE, Ph.D. and PHILLIP ESPLIN, Ed.D.        *
*                 Psychological Factors Involved in                  *
*             Memory Distortion vs. Intentional Deceit:              *
*                       Forensic Implications;                       *
*           A Review of the Relevant Scientific Literature           *
*                                                                    *
*                   Workshops   Session 1 Options                    *
*         Shaken Baby Syndrome: Dr. PLUNKETT & Dr. USCINKSI          *
*            Voir Dire, Jury Selection, Opening/Closing:             *
*                 JOE GUSTAFERRO and NANCY HOLLANDER                 *
*                 No Budget Defense: DONALD SAUVIAC                  *
*         Cross Examination of Experts/Kids: RICHARD LOUGEE          *
*                                                                    *
*                          Friday, March 14                          *
*                                                                    *
*                         STEVE HART, Ph.D.                          *
*                 Predator Issues: Fact vs. Fiction                  *
*                        RICHARD OFSHE, Ph.D.                        *
*                 False Confessions of Child Abuse:                  *
*           Why Would Someone Confess If It Weren't True?            *
*                        COLIN PATERSON, M.D.                        *
*                     Temporary Brittle Bone and                     *
*         Other Disorders as Causes of Unexplained Fractures         *
*                         FARIS BANDAK, M.D.                         *
*           Shaken Baby Syndrome: Science versus Suspicion           *
*                          Dr. KRIS SPERRY                           *
*               What to Look for in Pathology Reports                *
*                                                                    *
*                    Workshops  Session 2 Options                    *
*        Shaken Baby Syndrome: Dr. PLUNKETT and Dr. USCINKSI         *
*      Private Investigations: HARVEY SHAPIRO and JIM LaRIVIERE      *
*              Cross-Examination of Cops/Experts/Kids:               *
*               MIKE ROTHSCHILD and M. BRADLEY WISHEK                *
*         Child Abuse Allegations in Family/Juvenile Court:          *
*                          MICHAEL HUMISTON                          *
*                                                                    *
*                         Saturday, March 15                         *
*                                                                    *
*                       STEPHEN GUERTIN, M.D.                        *
*          Medical Sexual Abuse: What is Real, What is Not           *
*                         ANTHONY SHAW, M.D.                         *
*   Bruises and Burns: Differentiating Between Abuse and Non-Abuse   *
*                   ROGER MARKS LeJEUNESSE, Ph.D.                    *
*     Differentiating Between Real and Computer-Generated Porn:      *
*                           Ashcroft Case                            *
*               MARCUS LAWSON, J.D. and RAMONA LAWSON                *
*    Computer Hard Drive Verification: What's Yours? What's Not?     *
*                                                                    *
*              NCADRC, P.O. Box 638, Holland, OH 43528               *
*                         Fax# 419-865-0526                          *
*                                   *
*                                        *
*                                                                    *
*                                FREE                                *
*             "Recovered Memories: Are They Reliable?"               *
*     Call or write the FMS Foundation for pamphlets. Be sure to     *
*     include your address and the number of pamphlets you need.     *
*                                                                    *
*                      WEB  SITES  OF  INTEREST                      *
*                                                                    *
*                  *
*           The Lampinen Lab False Memory Reading Group              *
*                       University of Arkansas                       *
*                                                                    *
*                                       *
*                     The Memory Debate Archives                     *
*                                                                    *
*                                         *
*                      French language website                       *
*                                                                    *
*                                    *
*      Contains phone numbers of professional regulatory boards      *
*                          in all 50 states                          *
*                                                                    *
*                                       *
*                   Illinois-Wisconsin FMS Society                   *
*                                                                    *
*                                   *
*                             Ohio Group                             *
*                                                                    *
*                                           *
*                Australian False Memory Association.                *
*                                                                    *
*                                           *
*                    British False Memory Society                    *
*                                                                    *
*                               *
*            This site is run by Laura Pasley (retractor)            *
*                                                                    *
*                          *
*             This site is run by Deb David (retractor)              *
*                                                                    *
*                         *
*                            Upton Books                             *
*                                                                    *
*                    *
*                   Having trouble locating books                    *
*               about the recovered memory phenomenon?               *
*                     Recovered Memory Bookstore                     *
*                                                                    *
*                        *
*               Information about Satanic Ritual Abuse               *
*                                                                    *
*                                      *
*            Parents Against Cruel Therapy (David Hunter)            *
*                                                                    *
*                               *
*                       New Zealand FMS Group                        *
*                                                                    *
*                                       *
*                       Netherlands FMS Group                        *
*                                                                    *
*                     LEGAL WEBSITES OF INTEREST                     *
*                                        *
*                                           *
*                                       *
*                                           *
*                                      *
*                                                                    *
                F M S    B U L L E T I N    B O A R D

Contacts & Meetings:

  See Georgia
  Kathleen 907-333-5248
        Pat 480-396-9420
  Little Rock
        Al & Lela 870-363-4368
        Joanne & Gerald 916-933-3655
        Jocelyn 530-873-0919
  San Francisco & North Bay 
        Charles 415-984-6626 (am); 415-435-9618 (pm)
  San Francisco & South Bay
        Eric 408-738-0469
  East Bay Area
        Judy 925-952-4853
  Central Coast
        Carole 805-967-8058
  Palm Desert
        Eileen and Jerry 909-659-9636
  Central Orange County - 1st Fri. (MO) @ 7pm
        Chris & Alan 949-733-2925
  Covina Area 
        Floyd & Libby 626-330-2321
  San Diego Area 
        Dee 760-439-4630
  Colorado Springs
        Doris 719-488-9738
  S. New England
        Earl 203-329-8365 or
        Paul 203-458-9173
        Madeline 954-966-4FMS
  Central Florida - Please call for mtg. time
        John & Nancy 352-750-5446
        Francis & Sally 941-342-8310
  Tampa Bay Area
        Bob & Janet 727-856-7091
        Wallie & Jill 770-971-8917
  Chicago & Suburbs - 1st Sun. (MO)
        Eileen 847-985-7693 or
        Liz & Roger 847-827-1056
        Bryant & Lynn 309-674-2767
  Indiana Assn. for Responsible Mental Health Practices
        Pat 260-489-9987
        Helen 574-753-2779
  Wichita - Meeting as called
        Pat 785-738-4840
  Louisville- Last Sun. (MO) @ 2pm
        Bob 502-367-1838
        Carolyn 207-364-8891
        Wally & Boby 207-878-9812
   Andover - 2nd Sun. (MO) @ 1pm
        Frank 978-263-9795
  Grand Rapids Area-Jenison - 1st Mon. (MO)
        Bill & Marge 616-383-0382
  Greater Detroit Area
        Nancy 248-642-8077
  Ann Arbor
        Martha 734-439-4055
        Terry & Collette 507-642-3630
        Dan & Joan 651-631-2247
  Kansas City  -  Meeting as called
        Pat 785-738-4840
  St. Louis Area  -  call for meeting time
        Karen 314-432-8789
  Springfield - 4th Sat. Jan,Apr,Jul,Oct @12:30pm
        Tom 417-753-4878
        Roxie 417-781-2058
  Lee & Avone 406-443-3189
  Mark 802-872-0847
        Sally 609-927-5343
        Nancy 973-729-1433 
  Albuquerque  -2nd Sat. (bi-MO) @1 pm
  Southwest Room - Presbyterian Hospital
        Maggie 505-662-7521 (after 6:30 pm)
        Sy 505-758-0726
        Michael 212-481-6655
  Westchester, Rockland, etc.
        Barbara 914-761-3627
  Upstate/Albany Area
        Elaine 518-399-5749
  Susan 704-538-7202
        Bob 513-541-0816 or 513-541-5272
        Bob & Carole 440-356-4544
  Oklahoma City
        Dee 405-942-0531
        Jim 918-582-7363
  Portland area
        Kathy 503-557-7118
        Paul & Betty 717-691-7660
        Rick & Renee 412-563-5509
        John 717-278-2040
  Wayne (includes S. NJ) - 2nd Sat. (MO)
        Jim & Jo 610-783-0396
  Nashville - Wed. (MO) @1pm
        Kate 615-665-1160
        Jo or Beverly 713-464-8970
   El Paso
        Mary Lou 915-591-0271
        Keith 801-467-0669
        Mark 802-872-0847
        Sue 703-273-2343
        Kathy 503-557-7118
        Katie & Leo 414-476-0285 or
        Susanne & John 608-427-3686

  Vancouver & Mainland 
        Lloyd 250-741-8941
  Victoria & Vancouver Island
        John 250-721-3219
        Roma 240-275-5723
        Adriaan 519-471-6338
        Eileen 613-836-3294
        Ethel 705-924-2546
        Ken & Marina 905-637-6030
        Paula 705-543-0318
  St. Andre Est.
        Mavis 450-537-8187
  FMS ASSOCIATION fax-(972) 2-625-9282 
  Task Force FMS of Werkgroep Fictieve 
        Anna (31) 20-693-5692
        Colleen (09) 416-7443
        Ake Moller FAX (48) 431-217-90
  The British False Memory Society
        Madeline (44) 1225 868-682

           Deadline for the May/June Newsletter is APRIL 15
                  Meeting notices MUST be in writing
    and should be sent no later than TWO MONTHS PRIOR TO MEETING.

|          Do you have access to e-mail?  Send a message to          |
|                                         |
| if  you wish to receive electronic versions of this newsletter and |
| notices of radio and television  broadcasts  about  FMS.  All  the |
| message need say is "add to the FMS-News". It would be useful, but |
| not necessary,  if you add your full name (all addresses and names |
| will remain strictly confidential).                                |
  The False Memory Syndrome Foundation is a qualified 501(c)3 corpora-
tion  with  its  principal offices in Philadelphia and governed by its
Board of Directors.  While it encourages participation by its  members
in  its  activities,  it must be understood that the Foundation has no
affiliates and that no other organization or person is  authorized  to
speak for the Foundation without the prior written approval of the Ex-
ecutive Director. All membership dues and contributions to the Founda-
tion must be forwarded to the Foundation for its disposition.

Pamela Freyd, Ph.D.,  Executive Director

FMSF Scientific and Professional Advisory Board,         March 1, 2003

AARON T. BECK, M.D., D.M.S., U of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;
TERENCE W. CAMPBELL, Ph.D., Clinical and Forensic Psychology, 
    Sterling Heights, MI;
ROSALIND CARTWRIGHT, Ph.D., Rush Presbyterian St. Luke's Medical
    Center, Chicago, IL;
JEAN CHAPMAN, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI;
LOREN CHAPMAN, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI;
FREDERICK C. CREWS, Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, CA;
ROBYN M. DAWES, Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA;
DAVID F. DINGES, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;
HENRY C. ELLIS, Ph.D., University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM;
FRED H. FRANKEL, MBChB, DPM, Harvard University Medical School;
GEORGE K. GANAWAY, M.D., Emory University of Medicine, Atlanta, GA;
MARTIN GARDNER, Author, Hendersonville, NC;
ROCHEL GELMAN, Ph.D., Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ;
HENRY GLEITMAN, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;
LILA GLEITMAN, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;
RICHARD GREEN, M.D., J.D., Charing Cross Hospital, London;
DAVID A. HALPERIN, M.D., Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY;
ERNEST HILGARD, Ph.D., (deceased) Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA;
JOHN HOCHMAN, M.D., UCLA Medical School, Los Angeles, CA;
DAVID S. HOLMES, Ph.D., University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS;
PHILIP S. HOLZMAN, Ph.D., Harvard University, Cambridge, MA;
ROBERT A. KARLIN, Ph.D. , Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ;
HAROLD LIEF, M.D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;
ELIZABETH LOFTUS, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, CA;
SUSAN L. McELROY, M.D., University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH;
PAUL McHUGH, M.D., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD;
HAROLD MERSKEY, D.M., University of Western Ontario, London, Canada;
ULRIC NEISSER, Ph.D., Cornell University, Ithaca, NY;
RICHARD OFSHE, Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, CA;
EMILY CAROTA ORNE, B.A., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;
MARTIN ORNE, M.D., Ph.D., (deceased) U of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
LOREN PANKRATZ, Ph.D., Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR;
CAMPBELL PERRY, Ph.D., Concordia University, Montreal, Canada;
MICHAEL A. PERSINGER, Ph.D., Laurentian University, Ontario, Canada;
AUGUST T. PIPER, Jr., M.D., Seattle, WA;
HARRISON POPE, Jr., M.D., Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA;
JAMES RANDI, Author and Magician, Plantation, FL;
HENRY L. ROEDIGER, III, Ph.D. ,Washington University, St. Louis, MO;
CAROLYN SAARI, Ph.D., Loyola University, Chicago, IL;
THEODORE SARBIN, Ph.D., University of California, Santa Cruz, CA;
THOMAS A. SEBEOK, Ph.D., (deceased) U of Indiana, Bloomington, IN;
MICHAEL A. SIMPSON, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., M.R.C, D.O.M., Center for
    Psychosocial & Traumatic Stress, Pretoria, South Africa;
MARGARET SINGER, Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, CA;
RALPH SLOVENKO, J.D., Ph.D., Wayne State University Law School,
    Detroit, MI;
DONALD SPENCE, Ph.D., Robert Wood Johnson Medical Ctr, Piscataway, NJ;
JEFFREY VICTOR, Ph.D., Jamestown Community College, Jamestown, NY;
HOLLIDA WAKEFIELD, M.A., Institute of Psychological Therapies,
    Northfield, MN;
CHARLES A. WEAVER, III, Ph.D. Baylor University, Waco, TX

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                    THANK YOU FOR YOUR GENEROSITY.