FMS Foundation Newsletter

July-August 2003, Volume 12 No. 3


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F M S   F O U N D A T I O N   N E W S L E T T E R     (e-mail edition)
July/August  2003 Vol. 12 No. 4
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ISSN #1069-0484.           Copyright (c) 2003  by  the  FMS Foundation
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        The FMSF Newsletter is published 6 times a year by  the
        False  Memory  Syndrome  Foundation.  The newsletter is 
        mailed to anyone  who contributes at least $30.00. Also
              available at no cost on www.FMSFonline.org
           1955 Locust Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103-5766
                 Phone 215-940-1040, Fax 215-940-1042
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IN THIS ISSUE:
  News From Canada
    Legal Corner                       The next issue will be 
      Barthe                           September/October 2003
        From Our Readers
          Bulletin Board
**********************************************************************
*                                                                    *
*         S P E C I A L   F O R   E M A I L   E D I T I O N          *
*                                                                    *
* In a 5 to 4 decision, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the       *
* California law allowing retroactive prosecution of child abuse     *
* cases in California v. Stogner (see Legal Corner, this issue).     *
*   Justice Stephen G. Breyer for the majority noted:                *
*                                                                    *
*   "Memories fade, and witnesses can die or disappear. such         *
*   problems can plague child abuse cases, where recollection after  *
*   so many years may be uncertain, and "recovered" memories faulty, *
*   but may nonetheless lead to prosecutions that destroy families." *
*                                                                    *
*   "We agree that the state's interest in prosecuting child abuse   *
*   cases is an important one. But there is also a predominating     *
*   constitutional interest in forbidding the state to revive a      *
*   long-forbidded prosecution."                                     *
*                                                                    *
*       Majority Opinion: Justices Stephen G. Breyer, John Paul      *
*          Stevens, Sandra Day O'Connor, David H. Souter and         *
*          Ruth Bader Ginsburg                                       *
*                                                                    *
**********************************************************************

Dear Friends,

The disconnection between what science has to say about the nature of
memory and what appears in novels and movies continues to haunt us.
For example, one of this summer's blockbusters, "The Hulk," is
oriented around the recovery of repressed memories. We admit to
feeling anxious upon learning this information and decided that we had
better see the damage for ourselves. On a rainy Saturday afternoon, we
stood in line to get our tickets to the Marvel Comics inspired movie,
the only gray heads in a sea of chattering young people, mostly male.

Indeed, the movie is dependent on recovered memories. In the original
comic books, Bruce Banner was simply exposed to gamma rays that turned
him into a misunderstood strong, green and bad-tempered hulk. In later
comic books he remembered his suffering under a domineering father. In
the movie, however, it turns out that his father first modified
Bruce's genetic structure and then tried to kill him when he was four
years old, but succeeded only in killing Bruce's mother. Worse, Bruce
repressed all these memories.

The verdict? Not to worry. It is all so silly that it is exactly the
proper setting for repressed memories. There is not a whit of reality
as laws of science are defied in almost every scene. It is pure
fantasy. Only those children who do not yet know about the
conservation of mass could possibly be at risk for picking up
misinformation about repressed memories from this movie. It seems more
likely that movie-goers will associate repressed memories with
non-reality. Well, that is our optimistic hope.

The movie inspired the following thoughts related to repressed
memories from reviewers:

  "I couldn't help but think that American culture, probably more than
  any in the world, is preoccupied with repression -- with the idea
  that early childhood memories or traumas can profoundly affect the
  rest of our lives. Whether it's through self-help books or on-the-
  couch psychoanalysis, it's considered legitimate to mine our murky
  memories as a way not only to explain our lives but perhaps to
  assign blame as well." [1]

  "Suddenly, Bruce is overwhelmed by abandonment issues and Jungian
  dreams... [and his friend cries] `repressed memory syndrome.'...
  the themes feel purchased at a social relevance auction. We may be
  worried about genetic modification and the military industrial
  complex... But repressed memories? I believe the last time they were
  a hot-button topic was on Tempest Bledsoe's talk show." [2]

  "I'm far from an expert in such matters, but I would have thought
  that a combination of nanomeds and gamma radiation would be
  sufficient to make a nerdy researcher burst out of his clothes, turn
  green and start smashing things. I have now learned that this will
  occur only if there is a pre-existing genetic anomaly compounded by
  a history of parental abuse and repressed memories. This would be a
  fascinating paper in The New England Journal of Medicine, but it
  makes a supremely irritating -- and borderline nonsensical --
  premise for a movie." [3]

Of greater concern, we believe, is the disconnection between some
efforts to extend the statute of limitations and the science of
memory. Eighteen states are discussing possible removal of the
statutes of limitations in child sex abuse cases.

In the early 1990s, many state legislatures rushed to extend the
statutes during a period when talk shows offered a daily menu of
survivors who had recovered memories of their parents abusing them,
often in satanic rituals. These stories were dramatic, emotional, and
entertaining. In a number of states, revised laws specifically noted
that the extension was to accommodate those who had repressed their
memories. But the rush faded as victims faded from the media spotlight
and information about the lack of reliability of recovered memories
spread. Writing in 1998, the Foundation legal researcher Anita Lipton
noted that the issue of time limits was a complex balance between the
risk of cutting meritorious claims and the dangers of fraudulent
clams. She observed that: "No state has enacted legislation to extend
the time available to file a repressed memory claim since early in
1995." [4] The outrage and publicity about the current scandal of past
clergy child sexual abuse and the lobbying efforts of clergy abuse
survivor groups and their lawyers have reignited efforts to extend the
statutes. For a number of reasons, it seems we may be poised to see
major changes in statutes of limitations laws. (See the Legal Corner
on p. 7 and the summary of the Dan Lyons article on p.6, in this
issue.)

We are confronted this month with a major disconnection. On one hand,
there's the News From Canada on p. 3), and on the other, are all
references to scientific memory research in the reviews of Richard
McNally's Remembering Trauma. The disconnection is striking. On the
one hand, we read from Lloyd Corney that British Columbia is still
funding recovered memory type therapy through its victim's
compensation program, and on the other hand, Dr. Paul McHugh writes in
an article entitled "The end of delusion: The psychiatric memory wars
are over" (p. 5) that the McNally book represents the final phase of
the memory wars. How can there be such a disconnection?

Dr. McHugh is correct in respect to the scientific issues that have
comprised the memory wars: No credible scientific evidence exists to
support the collection of beliefs about recovered repressed or
dissociated memories. The McNally book makes that clear. The world,
however, is a big place, and people cling to beliefs even in the face
of contradictory evidence. They especially cling to them when they
have a vested interest, as do many professionals. It will take time
and effort to educate people, and that will not be easy. The emotional
story of someone who claims to be a victim may be more appealing than
scientific data to many. But education is paramount, and the
Foundation will continue to work to reach the public and
professionals. We especially thank all the FMSF readers who have taken
the time to speak out, write letters and find ways to educate whenever
they can.

The fact hat the intellectual issues may have been settled does not
mean that the collateral damage of the memory wars has been resolved
-- not by any means. As FMSF newsletter readers know all too well,
many families are still suffering from the memory madness of the last
decade. The pain remains acute. We have had several devastated parents
contact us in the past month whose children had reconnected, but only
to repeat the accusations. Trying to help families by learning about
the processes of reconciliation in these situations remains a top
priority. Although not much has appeared in the newsletter in recent
months, Drs. Lief and McHugh have been working hard with office staff
to prepare documents and papers from what was learned from the last
survey and to make plans for further study. Thank you for your
patience. Have a wonderful summer.
                                                                PAMELA

[1] Munroe, D. (2003, June 20). Sore Buriser: Ang Lee's`Hulk' can't
    decide whether it's poetic cinema or cartoon puffery. Fresno Bee,
    E-1.
[2] Onstad, K. (2003, June 20). All the rage: `You wouldn't like me
    when I'm angry.' National Post, PM-1.
[3] Scott, A.O. (2003, June 20). Tall and green, but no `ho, ho, ho.'
    New York Times, E-1.
[4] Lipton, A.(1999). Overview of repressed memory litigation. In (S.
    Taub, Ed.) Recovered Memories of Child Sexual Abuse:
    Psychological, Social, and Legal Perspectives on a Contemporary
    Mental Health Controversy. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas,
    p. 165-210.
                           ________________
                           Foundation Audit

We have received the audit for the fiscal year March 1, 2002 to
February 28, 2003 as provided by Goldenberg Rosenthal, LLP, the CPA
firm that audits the books and financial statements of the Foundation.
The Foundation spent $236,583 in the fiscal year, of which 79% went to
program activities, 20% went to management of the office, and 1% went
to fundraising.

        +----------------------------------------------------+
        |                   SPECIAL THANKS                   |
        |                                                    |
        |   We extend a very special `Thank you' to all of   |
        |  the people who help prepare the FMSF Newsletter.  |  
        |                                                    |
        |  EDITORIAL SUPPORT: Toby Feld, Allen Feld, Janet   |
        |           Fetkewicz, Howard Fishman, Peter Freyd   |
        |  COLUMNISTS: August Piper, Jr. and members         |
        |           of the FMSF Scientific Advisory Board    |
        |  LETTERS and INFORMATION: Our Readers              |
        +----------------------------------------------------+

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
| "It is a safe bet that more Americans know about the Salem witch   |
| trials than any other event in the 1690s. It is likely that three  |
| hundred years from now more Americans will know of the strikingly  |
| similar sex-abuse madness of the last twenty years than about a    |
| host of events now far higher on the public radar screen. We are   |
| incredulous that at Salem judges and public alike would believe    |
| girls writhing and shrieking that they were at that moment being   |
| pinched by the accused sitting far away in the dock. Yet the       |
| charges that recently passed muster in American courtrooms were    |
| not less bizarre. Nor was Satan lacking. In a number of high-      |
| profile cases, prosecutors and therapists alike were convinced     |
| that satanic cults were at work."                                  |
|                                                                    |
| "As the few who spoke out in 1690 are honored now, so will the     |
| small number who championed the victims in our own era be honored  |
| then."                                                             |
|                                   Isaac, R. J. (2003, March/April) |
|                                                   Our Witch Trials |
|             [Review of No Crueler Tyrannies by Dorothy Rabinowitz] |
|                                     The American Spectator,  74-75 |
\____________________________________________________________________/

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                             In Memoriam
                       CAMPBELL W. PERRY, Ph.D.
                             FMSF Advisor

Campbell W. Perry, Ph.D., died on May 15, 2003. Dr. Perry, Professor
Emeritus of Psychology at Concordia University, was at the forefront
of research on hypnosis and was an especially active member of the
FMSF Advisory Board. In addition to being a member of the Australian
False Memory Association, Dr. Perry wrote the excellent unit on
hypnosis for the FMSF Web site and a treasured review of the notorious
book, The Courage to Heal.
    Born in Australia, "Cam," as he was known to friends, moved to
Canada in the 1960s, becoming a professor at Concordia in 1978. He
seldom missed a meeting of the Canadian Parents Falsely Accused of
Incest and was noted for his willingness to talk for hours to families
who called him.
    Dr. Perry spent four decades studying and writing about hypnosis
and its effects. In 1989, he was co-recipient (with Jean-Roch
Laurence, Ph.D., first author) of the Arthur Shapiro Award for the
best book on hypnosis (Hypnosis, Will and Memory: A Psycholegal
History). A year later Dr. Perry won the Morton Prince Award "for
distinguished contribution to the development of hypnosis in the
science and profession of psychology." This was a joint award of the
Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis and the American Board
of Psychological Hypnosis. The Society of Clinical and Experimental
Hypnosis will organize a symposium in November in honor of Dr. Perry.
    Cam Perry had a marvelous wit and sense of humor. He will be
deeply missed.

         +-------------------------------------------------+
         |  "The mind is its own place, and in itself can  |
         |    make a heaven of hell, a hell of heaven."    |
         |                                    John Milton  |
         +-------------------------------------------------+

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                           NEWS FROM CANADA

The College of Physicians and Surgeons, the licensing and regulatory
body for doctors and psychiatrists in British Columbia, included the
following in a letter to Mr. Lloyd Corney, an FMSF member in BC.

  "Recovered memory therapy at one point, some years ago, was promoted
  by some as a diagnostic and treatment tool and as a model for
  explaining certain clinical presentations. Subsequently, the abuse
  of these theories and their misapplication, the results of which you
  are obviously fully aware of, caused this treatment to be questioned
  and, in fact, caused it to fall into disrepute."

  "It is my impression that this form of therapy was much more popular
  with counsellors and other health care providers as opposed to
  licensed physicians, even though some psychiatrists may have loaned
  support to these theories."

                                (Signed: M. VanAndel, M.D., Registrar)

According to Mr. Corney, recovered memory therapy practices continue
to receive government support in the Province of British Columbia
through the Crime Victim Assistance Program.
    Change in Canada is not likely to be speedy. As it is in the
United States, licensing and regulating mental health professionals is
a patchwork system. Both Ontario and British Columbia have recently
suggested changes, specifically restricting the titles "licensed,"
"registered," and "certified" to those practitioners who are regulated
by legislative statute.
    It appears that pressure from the Canadian Counselling Association
(CCA) has been successful in stalling the proposed legislation.
Currently the Counselling Association certifies its own members,
people with degrees in psychology, education, divinity, etc., but with
no specific qualification in clinical psychology.
    Many members of the Counselling Association engage in
psychotherapy and many attended a conference in Vancouver this spring
in which well-known recovered memory proponents spoke. This lends
support to the College statement about where problem therapists are
found and demonstrates the importance of regulating mental health
professionals.

GOVERNMENT MISINFORMATION: "The Status of Women" is the Canadian
"federal government department which promotes gender equality, and the
full participation of women...." It is headed by the Honourable Jean
Augustine, the Secretary of State.
    "School success by gender: A catalyst for the masculinist
discourse" is a paper posted on the department's Web site. From the
Executive Summary of the paper:

  "The results of our analysis of the masculinist discourse reveal an
  ideology that aims to challenge the gains made by women and
  discredit feminism. It is mainly spread through the print media and
  Internet sites of men's associations that hope to regain privileges
  lost over the years. Some statements also incite hatred and
  violence."

In the list of men's associations, almost all have in their titles the
words "men", "fathers" or some clear reference to single parents. The
two big exceptions are: the False Memory Syndrome Foundation and the
Australian FMSF. A section entitled "The typology of Masculinist
Groups" states that men's groups are classified as "pro-feminists,
masculinity therapy, and conservatives." Nowhere do the authors
explain in which category they believe the FMSF belongs.
    That an official government Web site would imply that the FMSF
incites hatred and violence is extremely disturbing. It is further
evidence of how slow change is likely to be in Canada.
    The Web site is
http://www.swc-cfc.gc.ca/pubs/0662882857/200303_0662882857_20_e.html

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
|                         Loftus Honored                             |
|                                                                    |
| Distinguished Professor of Social Ecology at the University of     |
| California, Irvine, Elizabeth Loftus, has been elected as a 2003   |
| fellow by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. The academy   |
| is comprised of scientists, academics, scholars and                |
| business-oriented individuals.                                     |
\____________________________________________________________________/

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     CANADIAN POLICE PAY $150,000 to SETTLE FALSE MEMORY LAWSUIT

The Peel, Ontario police paid $150,000 to 63-year-old Andrew Dikens
for charges brought against him in 2003. According to Sean Dewart, Mr.
Dikens's lawyer, the charges were based only on a woman's
uncorroborated memories of being raped and abused dozens of times in
different cities. She reported her memories to the police in British
Columbia, who relayed the information to the Peel police.
    The Peel police never spoke to Mr. Dikens before they charged
him. Some of the accusations were absurd, such as an alleged assault
that took place on a stage with flashing stroboscopic lights during a
bowling tournament while Mr. Dikens had locked his son in a
closet. The Crown Prosecutor dropped the charges after 18 months for
lack of evidence.
    Mr. Dikens used up his life savings looking for evidence to show
that he had not been in the cities at the times specified in the
accusations. According to a Globe and Mail article [1], Dikens said
that after he was charged "his life instantly tumbled into a vortex of
fright and powerlessness. He was barred from carrying on his regular
volunteer work with seniors and paraplegics. And he could no longer
cross the border to visit his children in the United States." Mr.
Dikens noted that his health had failed and that he has been terribly
depressed.
    Canadian FMSF contact Adriaan Mak commented that "by U.S.
standards the award of $150,000 is small, especially since in addition
to his grief, the false accusation by the daughter of a former
acquaintance cost Dikens his retirement savings. Yet it seems a first
against a police force in a case of childhood sexual abuse where false
memories were implanted by a British Columbia therapist in Burnaby."
    Makin, K.  Man wins lawsuit against police. Globe and Mail, 2003,
    June 19, p. 8.

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
| "Nothing changes more than the past; for the past that influences  |
| our lives does not consist of what actually happened, but what men |
| believe happened."                                                 |
|                                                  Gerald W. Johnson |
\____________________________________________________________________/

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                   CANADIAN STUDY of DAMAGE AWARDS

A recent article in the Vancouver Sun [1] describes research by
criminologist David MacAlister at Simon Fraser University. MacAlister
studied 150 damage awards to victims of crime by Canadian courts from
1988 to 1998 and found a steep rise in the number of abuse victims who
successfully sued their abusers. The study did not consider out-of-
court settlements. Seventy of the 150 awards involved sexual abuse or
sexual assault. In addition to cases of incest and sexual assault by
neighbors or relatives, most of the cases involved residential
schools. It is thought that there have been about 10,000 suits filed
by former residential school students, but only a handful have gone to
trial and resulted in awards. Most were settled out of court or are
still pending.
    In addition to an increase in the number of awards, MacAlister
found that the size of the awards also increased during the period. He
is quoted as saying that the increases happened "once it became clear
that there were residential schools or churches or government agencies
that were financially capable of paying the damage awards."
    The removal of statutes of limitations made it possible for these
damage suits to be filed. The province of British Columbia completely
eliminated the limitations in criminal cases of sexual abuse on the
basis of the belief that some victims repressed their memories of the
abuse. MacAlister noted that "Once that was gone, it seemed to
facilitate civil suits as well."
[1] Boei, W. (2003, May 21). Suits target those with deep pockets:
    Institutional sexual abuse a prime focus. Vancouver Sun, p. B4.

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
| "Some issues don't get resolved and are like a relentless          |
| neurodegenerative disease. Life gets in the way."                  |
|                          A dad who learned his daughter is still   |
|                               making accusations after 12 years.   |
\____________________________________________________________________/

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			      Howe, M.L
                      MEMORIES FROM THE CRADLE.
	     Current Directions in Psychological Science,
			 2003 12 (2), 62-65.

What can children remember from the first few years of life, and what
are the factors that determine when memories of personal experience
persist? These questions have interested researchers for years but are
of particular importance now because of claims that find their way
into courtrooms. Mark L. Howe, an expert in the field of early
memories, argues that language, though important, is not the "key" to
when memories may persist. Howe argues that it is the development of a
"cognitive self" that is key. "Prior to the articulation and
recognition of an independent self, there is no referent or
organizational structure available." This development takes place
around the age of 18 to 24 months. Self-recognition in a mirror is
found at this time. Although many questions still exist, current
evidence indicates that memory for ordinary events and memory for
traumatic events behave similarly. Memories before the age of two
years are unlikely to "survive intact into adulthood."
    Howe concludes: "For now, it is safe to say that we do not
remember being born or our in utero experiences. We do, however, have
excellent imaginations, ones that can not only create `memories' but
also affect the memories we do carry with us from childhood. Which
ones are real and which ones are false is not always easy to tell
apart; but memories thought to originate before the age of 2 are very
likely not to be true."

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
| "Half of the harm that is done in this world is due to people who  |
| want to feel important. They don't mean to do harm -- but harm     |
| does not interest them. Or they do not see it, or they justify it  |
| because they are absorbed in the endless struggle to think well of |
| themselves"                                                        |
|                                                         T.S. Eliot |
\____________________________________________________________________/

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			     Pankratz, L.
    MORE HAZARDS: HYPNOSIS, AIRPLANES, and STRONGLY HELD BELIEFS.
	       Skeptical Inquirer, 2003, 27 (3), 31-36.
                  (Soon available at www.csicop.org)

Psychologist Loren Pankratz details the steps he took to verify Karon
and Widener's claims of a confirmed case of recovered repressed
memory.[1] Edward Karon, a psychoanalytic psychologist and the father
of one of the authors, treated a veteran with hysterical paralysis for
six months in twice weekly sessions more than 50 years ago. At the end
of six months, the patient "brought his therapist a newspaper clipping
that presumably dealt with an airplane crash in which he and the pilot
had been injured." The patient had no conscious memory of the crash
but later recovered it.
    Pankratz, who worked for 25 years as a psychologist for the
Veterans Affairs medical system and had discovered many spurious
claims, was suspicious of some of the details in the Karon and Widener
report. Following procedure for validating claims, Pankratz asked
Karon to make the supporting evidence for the patient's claims
available.
    After two failed requests to Karon, Pankratz provided all
correspondence to the Ethics Office of the American Psychological
Association. The facts in contest were ignored by the Ethics Committee
chairperson who, it turns out, had previously co-authored a book with
Karon.
    A year after the Karon and Widener article, Professional
Psychology published four critical reviews and a response by Karon and
Widener. The response was revealing. Rather than answer the critics,
Karon and Widener began with a story about a rape and asked "Would any
serious clinician tell her she is lying because there is no such thing
as repression?" They charged the critics with "dismissing all WWII
patients who suffered trauma and repression as malingerers."
    Pankratz discusses issues of secondary gain as well as recent
research showing that the "vast majority of people exposed to toxic
events do not subsequently experience any long-term disorder, and
delayed responses are extremely rare." He notes that "pre-existing
personal vulnerabilities are more predictive of outcome than an
event."
    This article confirms the serious risks of basing conclusions on
evidence from case reports, as was also shown in "Who Abused Jane
Doe?" by Elizabeth Loftus and Melvin Guyer. [2,3]

[1] Karon, B., & Widener, A., (1997). Repressed memories and World War
    II: Lest we forget! Professional Psychology: Research and Practice
    29, 482-487.
[2] Loftus, E.F. & Guyer, M.J. (2002). Who abused Jane Doe? The
    hazards of the single case history Part 1. Skeptical Inquirer
    26(3): 24-32.
[3] Loftus, E.F. & Guyer, M.J. (2002). Who abused Jane Doe? The
    hazards of the single case history Part 2. Skeptical Inquirer
    26(4), 37-40.

              +----------------------------------------+
              | Loyalty to petrified opinion never yet |
              |  broke a chain or freed a human soul.  |
              |                             Mark Twain |
              +----------------------------------------+

**********************************************************************
                             McHugh, P.R.
                      THE END OF A DELUSION: THE
                  PSYCHIATRIC MEMORY WARS ARE OVER"
                    [Review of Remembering Trauma]
                     The Weekly Standard, 8 (36)
			     2003, May 26

Paul McHugh places Remem-bering Trauma (Richard McNally, Harvard
University Press, 2003) in the context of monitoring the "final phase"
of the memory wars. McNally "leaves no defense of recovered memories,"
states McHugh.
    Noting that people today tend to find the notion of recovered
repressed memories "absurd and ridiculous," McHugh traces the rise of
recovered-memory beliefs to a new interpretation of Freud by
"mannerists" as contrasted with orthodox Freudians.

  "[B]oth the orthodox and the mannerists believed that Western
  society is the primary source of mental distress: Freud taught that
  society restricted the expression of our drives, producing conflicts
  and neurosis: the mannerists claimed that society protected the
  sexual predators by its paternalistic structure. Meanwhile, both
  believed in a dynamic unconscious roiling with repressed secrets.
  Freud supposed that the unconscious hid our selfish impulses and
  hungers from consciousness and thus from censure by a repressive
  culture; the mannerists held that the unconscious hid the shocking
  memories from consciousness so that family life could go on.
  Finally, both believed that therapy should bring the unconscious
  issues to light: Freud said this would spare the subject from
  wasting psychic energy repressing his drives and so allow him to
  flourish in `love and work'; the mannerists believed that
  acknowledging the `repressed abuse would lead to a life free from
  the nightmares, failures in personal relationships, and self-
  destructive behaviors generated by the unconscious memories.'"

McHugh writes that after the mannerists launched the memory wars,
their ideas spread so quickly that by 1991 some "manneristic Freudians
were claiming that up to half of patients in psychiatric care were
suffering from the effects of repressed or dissociated memories of
sexual abuse."
    The second phase of the memory wars, according to McHugh, began in
1992 with the formation of the FMS Foundation and other organized
opposition to these ideas and practices. He explains that the
Foundation began with the belief that "common sense would soon
prevail, and this misdirection of psychiatry from standard practices
of evaluation and therapy would promptly stop. But the opposition to
the idea of repressed memory received little or no support from
official psychiatry or from the editorial policies of such
professional journals as the American Journal of Psychiatry." Many
excellent books appeared in the second phase, and the stories of
former patients who sued recovered-memory therapists garnered much
media and public attention.

  "Perhaps the greatest scandal of the memory wars lies in this: The
  official avenues of clinical and scientific debate failed to play a
  role in ending these practices, while public rebuke and punishment
  did. Enormous damage is done to a medical discipline when it is
  forced to advance and retreat under the gun of the malpractice
  courts -- but when the psychiatric establishment was at best absent,
  and at worst complicit, in the widespread practice of a psychiatric
  abuse, what alternative was there."

According to McHugh, the second phase of the memory wars was partially
effective in changing the situation: At minimum, no one brags about
how skilled they are at excavating hidden memories -- at least not in
public. But the effect of the courts in stopping the practices was
limited. With the publication of Remembering Trauma, McHugh says, "The
repressed-memory diagnosis has finally been repressed."

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
| An accusation of sexual abuse sets off a "chain reaction that is   |
| as inevitable and as lethal to the entire family as that of a      |
| nuclear explosion."                                                |
|                                                       Yapko, M.D.  |
|                                             Suggestions of Abuse:  |
|                True and False Memories of Childhood Sexual Trauma  |
|                         Simon and Schuster, 1994: New York, p.179  |
\____________________________________________________________________/

**********************************************************************
                              Lyons, D.
			   SEX, GOD & GREED
		     Forbes, 2003, June 9, 66-72

"Sex, God & Greed" is an overview of sexual abuse claims against the
Catholic church. Dan Lyons notes that the Church has already paid $1
billion to the victims of pedophile priests, with indications that the
total may top $5 billion before the end of the crisis.
    Using the Ford v. Shanley case in Boston as a centerpiece, the
author focuses on the handful of lawyers who are responsible for the
majority of the claims against the Church. Lyons notes that some
litigators have "parlayed the priest crisis into a billion-dollar
money machine, fueled by lethal legal tactics, shrewd use of the
media. and public outrage so fierce that almost any claim, no matter
how bizarre or dated, offers a shot at a windfall." He also observes
that these lawyers have led the lobby efforts in several states to
extend the statute of limitations on sex-abuse cases.
    There seems to be agreement that the majority of abuse cases are
legitimate and that dioceses "will pay dearly for covering up the most
abominable crimes and failing to prevent future offenses." Lyons is
concerned, however, that a "small cast of liars" will cash "in on the
real suffering of victims." He uses the case of Ford v. Shanley as a
possible example. Ford and two of his friends are suing Shanley, and
all claim to have repressed the memories. According to Lyons, Ford's
background raises many questions about the legitimacy of his memories.
Rev. Shanley, 72, was removed from ministry in 1994 at the time of
settlements to an undisclosed number of people.
    Lyons also points out that the search for money goes beyond the
Church to insurance companies. He describes the lawyers as "casting
about for the next targets...": day-care centers run by large
companies, schools, camps, and organizations such as the Boy
Scouts. Plaintiff lawyers are going after old insurance policies
written decades ago under entirely different circumstances, such as
those from Pacific Indemnity and Allianz Insurance Co.
    FMSF Newsletter readers will find the sidebars to the article to
be particularly interesting. "Heavenly Cash" contains examples of
outrageous cases, such as the two Arizona women who "have sued the
Tucson diocese, alleging a priest molested their two brothers, causing
the brothers to then molest them."
    Another sidebar titled "Battle of the Shrinks." describes the
experts who have been on opposing sides of the issue regarding whether
people can wipe out memories of severe trauma and then recover these
repressed memories years later. An excerpt:

  "Loftus is past president of the American Psychological Society and
  last year was named one of the 100 most eminent psychologists of the
  20th century by the Review of General Psychology, a scientific
  journal. This year she is to be elected to the American Academy of
  Arts & Sciences. Yet Ford's attorney, Roderick MacLeish, Jr.,
  dismisses recovered-memory naysayers as `on the fringe' and `outside
  the mainstream' of psychological thought."

  "But it is MacLeish's expert, Dr. van der Kolk, who appears to be
  moreon the fringe. He believes traumatic memories can be repressed
  by the mind and stored in the body -- mysterious vaginal pains might
  indicate a long-forgotten rape -- and later retrieved. Dr. Van der
  Kolk treats trauma sufferers with a technique called Eye Movement
  Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), in which he waggles his
  fingers back and forth in front of a patient's eyes, believing the
  eyes' side-to-side movements help the brain cope with painful
  memories. `How it works I would not dare speculate, but that it
  works is clear,' he says."

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
| "We can cope with painful memories by dwelling on them and pushing |
| them out of daily awareness. But that is very different from       |
| losing access to them in the way proposed by many                  |
| psychotherapists. The extremely well-documented finding that       |
| "repressed memories" are very unlikely is of widespread            |
| significance. It provides a potential cure for the madness that    |
| has destroyed hundreds, possibly thousands, of families whose      |
| members had memories "recovered in therapy -- memories that had no |
| basis in reality. There are still people languishing in prison,    |
| convicted on the basis of memories that were created by invasive   |
| psychotherapeutic intervention.                                    |
|                                            Canter, D. (2003, June) |
|            Yes, I remember it well. New Scientist 178 (2399) p. 54 |
|                  [Review of Remembering Trauma by Richard McNally] |
\____________________________________________________________________/

**********************************************************************
                       L E G A L   C O R N E R
                              FMSF Staff
              _________________________________________
              Statutes of Limitations: Changing Climate
A statute of limitations sets a limit on the amount of time period
that the government has to prosecute offenders. The time limits grew
out of British common law in the 1600s when "British royalty tried to
persecute political dissenters by resurrecting old crimes and by
criminalizing previously acceptable behavior [1]"
    Statutes of limitations were not intended to protect
criminals. They have been maintained because it is extremely difficult
for a person to defend him or herself after a few years. The memories
of eyewitnesses fade, and records that might be needed to prove an
alibi disappear.
    One of the major reasons that states have begun eliminating
statutes of limitations is the development of technology that provides
DNA evidence. Since 2000, about 20 states have passed laws to remove
the statute of limitations on crimes in which DNA evidence is found at
the scene of the crime, and another 10 states will be debating the
issue. DNA is viewed as a powerful crime-fighting tool.
    Eighteen states are currently deciding whether to eliminate
statutes of limitations in order to pursue old child-abuse cases. In
the early 1990s, there was a similar move by many states to extend the
time limits in sexual abuse cases. This was a period when talk shows
and magazine articles were filled with stories about survivors of
sexual abuse and satanic cults who had "recovered" their memories of
parental abuse. That push effectively stopped around 1995 as
scientific evidence about the unreliability of recovered memories
became known. The push to extend the time bars in abuse cases has been
reignited in the current Catholic Church sexual abuse crisis. Many
plaintiffs in child sexual abuse cases alleged that they had
"recovered" memories of their abuse or had only recently realized the
nature of what happened to them years ago as a way to get around the
statutes of limitations.
    Legislators will probably be reluctant to take action to prevent
the elimination of statutes of limitations because it would look as
though they were protecting criminals or sexual predators. That is the
perception, even though the statutes have been maintained for reasons
of evidence, not for protecting criminals.
    The issues of DNA evidence and child molestation seem to have
become entwined even though DNA evidence is considered reliable while
evidence in child molestation cases often boils down to "he said, she
said," or "symptoms." For example, on May 15, 2003 Illinois passed a
law that says the statute of limitations begins only after a victim
discovers the causal connection between the abuse and his or her
injuries. Injuries generally are interpreted as "psychological
symptoms."
    By the time readers receive this newsletter, the U.S. Supreme
Court should have ruled on the statute of limitations in Stogner v.
California, No. 01-1757. As was noted in the FMSF May/June 2003
newsletter, the Court will decide if California can prosecute a
74-year-old man on 48-year-old child molestation charges. According to
Evan T. Lee, Professor at the University of California Hastings
College of Law, "The DNA, the repressed memory, all of that is aimed
at cases in the past. That's why the Stogner case has a lot riding on
it." It is expected that a decision to allow the California
prosecution will dramatically change the tradition of statutes of
limitations in states across the country in both criminal and civil
cases.

[1] The information presented here is based on Ballard, M. (2003, June
    23). Tossing out the clock: States are repealing some statutes of
    limitations. The National Law Journal. Retrieved from
    http://www.nlj.com/news/062303statute.shtml on June 23, 2003.

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
|                   From Testimony at Hearings                       |
|     About Extending Statutes of Limitations in New York State      |
|                                                                    |
| "Reverend Hoatson said he learned only five months ago that, as a  |
| 3-year-old, he had been abused by a relative. He said that         |
| experience, repressed in his psyche for nearly five decades and    |
| uncovered recently through therapy, illustrates why New York       |
| should change its statute of limitations."                         |
|                                                                    |
| According to Rev. Hoatson, "Repressed memory is perhaps the single |
| most significant psychological mechanism impacting the statute of  |
| limitations for cases of sexual abuse. Someone like myself, whose  |
| abuse was so traumatic that it was buried for 48 years, needs the  |
| people of New York state to affirm that I have the right to follow |
| all civil and legal means to seek justice at the time my abuse is  |
| made known to me, regardless of my age."                           |
|                                           Caher, J. (2003, May 21) |
|                        Victims of clergy sexual abuse seek bill to |
|                          suspend three-year statute of limitations |
|                                         New York Law Journal. p. 1 |
\____________________________________________________________________/

                              __________
                              Correction
Last month we incorrectly wrote that Paul Ingram had "confessed" when
we should have stated that he "pleaded guilty." Indeed, it was the
plea that he was unable to have overturned.
    Paul has written that he is doing well. He said that his neighbors
are friendly, and he enjoys being part of a group of fellows who walk
5 to 10 miles every other day in an effort to lose weight. He hopes to
find a job, but in the meantime he has been remodeling his parent's
home.

**********************************************************************
                       CAPTURING THE FRIEDMANS
                         A Documentary Movie
                      Produced by Andrew Jarecki

Andrew Jarecki's documentary Capturing the Friedmans won the jury
award at the Sundance Film Festival in January, 2003 and has received
stellar reviews. The film relates the story of retired schoolteacher
Arnold Friedman and his son Jessie, who were found guilty of child
molestation in 1987 in Great Neck, Long Island.
    Arnold gave computer lessons to children in his home. Among the
accusations, Arnold was accused of taking pornographic pictures, yet
none were ever found. Arnold did confess to having fantasies of child
molestation, making this story deeply complicated.
    Arnold died in prison. Jessie was released after 13 years. The
film is a combination of interviews with police, other experts, and
family members, combined with films and home movies made by Arnold
Friedman.
    A New Yorker review [1] describes Capturing the Friedmans as "one
of the most heartbreaking films ever made about an American family."
It notes that "audiences will debate for hours about who is telling
the truth, who is telling a half-truth, and who wants to believe so
passionately in something false that it becomes a vivid memory to be
defended against every hint of doubt.
[1] Denby, D.(2003, June 2) In the basement. [Review of Capturing the
    Friedmans] New Yorker, pp. 102-103.

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
| "[Capturing the Friedmans] strongly suggests the children's        |
| testimony was obtained with the sort of unfairly leading interview |
| techniques and false-memory hysteria that characterized such 1980s |
| trials as the McMartin preschool case in California. At those      |
| trials, alleged child victims were repeatedly interviewed until    |
| they gave increasingly lurid accounts of sodomy, other abuse and   |
| even satanic rituals."                                             |
|                                                           Howe, D. |
|           "Arresting Images; Documentary Asks: Hysteria or Truth?" |
|                                                The Washington Post |
|                                              June 16, 2003, p. C-1 |
\____________________________________________________________________/

**********************************************************************
                             In Memoriam
                       RICHARD A. GARDNER, M.D.

It is with sadness that we report the sudden death of Richard A.
Gardner, M.D., in May 2003. Dr. Gardner was not a member of the FMSF
Scientific Advisory Board, but he was supportive of the Foundation's
goals, and he always showed kindness and sympathy to FMS families. He
was one of the first professionals to speak out about the recovered
memory movement in his 1991 book, Sex Abuse Hysteria: Salem Witch
Trials Revisited.
    Dr. Gardner, 72, was a child and adult psychiatrist who practiced
in New Jersey and authored more than 40 books and 300 articles. For
the past two decades he specialized in high-conflict child-custody
disputes, many of which, he believed, involved one parent alienating
children from the other parent.
    We extend our condolences to his family, to the many families who
benefited from his insights, and the many thousands of professionals
who admired his courage and gained insight from his wisdom.

"The conclusion of [the research] is that memories of horrible
experiences are rarely, if ever, repressed -- that is, exiled from
consciousness without the victim knowing it and actively kept out of her
awareness. On the contrary, those who endure shocking ordeals almost
always remember them, even if they choose not to think about them or
desperately wish to forget them. Moreover, therapists and memory
researchers have been too lax about trying to distinguish reluctance to
disclose dreadful experiences or failure to think about them from a true
inability to remember the events. McNally's book reminds us how much
popular psychological wisdom still needs to be unlearned -- by the
public, by the media, by judges, and, not least, by many mental health
professionals. This correction has been a long time coming, because the
notions that we bury memories of intolerable events, that those memories
are accurate when unearthed, and that they hold the key to understanding
our current distress, are axioms of the Freudian legacy that is
inscribed on our culture."

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
| "McNally risks excommunication from the Church of Traumatology,    |
| for the charge of blaming the victim. For he presents evidence     |
| showing that emotional breakdown after a tragedy is the exception, |
| not the rule. It occurs because some individuals are simply more   |
| susceptible than others to developing psychiatric disorders        |
| following a crisis. This will not please the psychobabblers and    |
| the melodramatists and the daytime-television bookers; but McNally |
| is unfazed. `Ultimately the best form of advocacy,' he writes, `is |
| pursuing the truth about trauma wherever it may lead.'"            |
|                                           Satel, S. (2003, May 19) |
|                                                 The Trauma Society |
|                                             The New Republic, p.29 |
|                  (Review of Remembering Trauma by Richard McNally) |
\____________________________________________________________________/

**********************************************************************
                          RECLAIMING MY NAME
                          Jeanette D. Bartha

I fled repressed memory therapy 11 years ago, relocated 1,700 miles
from the psychiatrist I fired, and changed my first name to Jaye
because I was no longer interested in being the crazed multiple
Dr. Stratford# [1] had created during the previous 6 years.
    During treatment in a Philadelphia psychiatric hospital, my given
name, Jeanette Bartha, became a label I hated, a four-letter word if
you will, that was plastered all over hospital and court records. I
was ashamed of the volatile, narcotic-dependent woman I had become and
wore my name like a scarlet letter. My reputation as a difficult
patient was known by hundreds of hospital employees and, given the
committed manner in which I carried out my role as mental patient, the
name Jeanette should have been awarded its own DSM diagnostic
category.
    I recall with a smile what Dr. Stratford stated during his medical
malpractice deposition that led to an out-of-court settlement 2 days
before trial. My lawyer, Richard Shapiro, asked the good doctor what
he thought of my use of the name Jaye. Dr. Stratford stated that in
all probability I was still multiple and that Jaye was another
personality -- one he had never met. In some peculiar twist of
language, the doctor was correct regarding a new personality, but not
for the reasons he believed. Changing my name enabled me to recreate
myself while gaining independence from coercive psychotherapy.
Unfortunately, Dr. Stratford did not have the capacity to see beyond
his delusions.
    For the past decade, I have been running from the Jeanette Bartha
label. But now that I have rebuilt my life, I have come full circle
and returned home -- home to myself, home to Jeanette, and home to my
family.
    While my parents know my new friends call me Jaye, I recently
announced that I completed my memoir of those horrific therapy years
... my manuscript is written by Jeanette D. Bartha -- not Jaye. We all
cried. By reclaiming my name, we have sewn another stitch into the
fabric of our family, which gets stronger with each passing year.

[1] A pseudonym

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
| "Even memories of 'unforgettable' experiences are a mishmash of    |
| first-hand observation confounded by things we heard about, things |
| we saw later, things authorities suggested to us and things we     |
| imagined.  But in addition to these well-studied influences on     |
| memory, which exert their influence after the actual observation,  |
| something else is going on: Sometimes we don't see in the first    |
| place."                                                            |
|                                                         Begley, S. |
|       Eyewitnesses to crime are often blinded by shock, adrenaline |
|                             Wall Street Journal.  2002, October 25 |
\____________________________________________________________________/

**********************************************************************
            RECOVERED MEMORY THERAPIST and LAWYER CHARGED

Terry Davis, Ph.D., the Executive Director of The Guardian Foundation
in Memphis, Tennessee pleaded guilty to Medicare Fraud in September
2002. Dr. Davis was charged with billing for services provided by
unlicensed personnel and billing for services that were not provided.
Her one-year sentence was suspended, and she was given probation and
ordered to pay a fine of $500. The Guardian Foundation is a non-profit
corporation that provides mental health services for people diagnosed
with multiple personality (dissociative disorders).
  Medicaid Fraud Report (2002, December) National Association of
  Attorneys General, Cases, p. 16.

Mark Roseman, a California attorney and an outspoken supporter of the
reliability of recovered memories has been charged with theft from
client settlements. Mr. Roseman represented Eileen Franklin when she
was sued by her father, George Franklin. He was a co-author of You the
Jury, a book about the recovered memory debate presented in the form
of a trial.
  Mehta, S. (2003, April 27). Attorneys Accused of Looting Accounts.
  Los Angeles Times. Metro, Part 2, p. 1.

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
|     Question: What do the following hospitals have in common?      |
|                                                                    |
| * Forest View Hospital (Psychological Trauma Treatment Center,     |
| Colin A. Ross, M.D.) - Grand Rapids, MI                            |
|                                                                    |
| * River Oaks Hospital (Masters and Johnson Treatment for Trauma    |
| Based Disorders, Compulsive Behaviors and Eating Disorders, Mark   |
| Schwarz, Sc.D. and Lori Galperin LCSW) - New Orleans, LA           |
|                                                                    |
| * Sheppard Pratt Health System (Trauma Disorders Program, Richard  |
| J. Lowenstein, M.D.) - Baltimore, MD                               |
|                                                                    |
| * Timberlawn Mental Health System (Trauma Program, Colin A. Ross,  |
| M.D.) - Dallas, TX                                                 |
|                                                                    |
| * Two Rivers Psychiatric Hospital (Masters and Johnson Trauma      |
| Based Disorders Program, Mark Schwarz, Sc.D. and Lori Galperin,    |
| LCSW) - Kansas City, MO                                            |
|                                                                    |
| * Women's Institute for Incorporation Therapy ? Hollywood, FL      |
|                                                                    |
| Answer: They are all listed as supporters of and advertise in Many |
| Voices: Words of hope for people recovering from trauma &          |
| dissociation. Many Voices is the major newsletter for people who   |
| believe they suffer from multiple personality disorder.            |
\____________________________________________________________________/

**********************************************************************
                   F R O M   O U R   R E A D E R S

                    _____________________________
                    Sucked In  --  Like Quicksand
There was always a concern on my part that I may have falsely accused
my dad. I felt that once I was away from the weekly counseling
(suggesting my dad had sexually abused me), the daily journaling about
possible abuse (I was encouraged to write about what might have
happened), the hypnosis, and the reading of books on other women's
explicit memories, multiple personalities, and satanic ritualistic
abuse, that my mind would be clearer and I'd have a better perspective
on the whole issue.
    I ended my counseling over 1-1/2 years ago and have given a lot of
thought to what happened. I believe I allowed myself to accept the
suggestions and negative information that was bombarding me as an
explanation as to why I was the way I was. I believed a counselor whom
I knew for 6 months over my father who cared for me all my life. I
became overwhelmed by all of the negative input and got "sucked in" --
like quicksand.
    I clearly see now that my dad never sexually abused me. I am truly
sorry for all the pain I caused, and I deeply appreciate everyone's
prayers. I thank the Lord that I came out of all this and pray for the
other families in the same situation.
                                                        Sincerely, "M"
              __________________________________________
	      What happens after a lawsuit is dismissed?
			Picking up the Pieces:
	    A Sister's Story Told in a Phone Call in 1995
A caller ("Ann") told us that in 1992 her adopted sister had filed a
civil suit against their parents who were in their 80s. Ann said her
sister claimed to have repressed memories of abuse for over 30 years
until she recovered them in therapy with the use of hypnosis. Ann's
sister demanded $100,000. She knew that both parents were living on a
small pension but she hoped to get money through their insurance. A
brother was also named in the suit but he lived out of state.
    In 1994, the suit was dismissed by the judge on the second day of
the trial. After listening to one day of testimony, the judge
concluded that the sister had no case and dismissed the jury. Ann
believed that the judge felt that some of the sister's complaints
would be better solved in discussion with the family and did not rise
to legal grounds. In addition, the sister's statements contained many
contradictions.
    According to Ann, her sister had had many problems growing up. She
came to the family from an orphanage when she was 7. As an adolescent,
she ran away from home, got into trouble, was picked up by the police
and began to abuse drugs.
    After the judge dismissed the case, Ann's sister began to cry
uncontrollably. Ann hugged her and said that she began to build
rapport with her sister by saying, "We loved you. I'm here to be your
sister. During the past twenty years I didn't know where you were or
even if you were alive." The first time that the family had seen the
sister in 20 years was at the trial.
    After the trial, Ann told us that her sister seemed to want all
the bitterness to dissolve and for them to pick up as though nothing
had happened. Ann said that her sister wanted her to fix everything
with the family, that she wanted to come to her home and meet her
children and to participate in family activities.
    "If there is no real discussion," Ann said, "a relationship on
those terms is, frankly, fake." She said "I believe love in a family
needs to be unconditional, but when the bond of trust is broken, how
do you rebuild? It is difficult to trust... I can't fix everything in
the family alone, especially after that much time and upheaval. I
don't know if there can be total reconciliation."
    Ann told us that the lawsuit took a terrible toll on her elderly
parents. She said that the depositions were a nightmare and believes
that the stress of the lawsuit contributed to her parents' health
problems. "The family is emotionally exhausted. I love my sister but
that does not mean that the family will be able to pick up as though
nothing had happened."
    When she speaks to her parents about reconciling with her sister,
she tells them that they should be concerned about their health and
that if they decide to meet with her sister it should be at a neutral
location. Ann said that the financial gain question is always there.
It doesn't go away. "My brother and I wonder what is next."
    Ann commented that "this generation is almost redefining the
family unit. There is a connection between family members, but it has
been redefined by issues never before addressed. It is not about
birthdays and Christmas and tranquilly enjoying each other's
company. It is more one-on-one. We are concerned about each other's
lives. But without trust, we cannot really enjoy each other's
company. These are issues that have never been addressed before. The
old definitions don't work. Professionals need to help families with
this and the only way to make it work is to start talking to each
other. It has to be put on a human level and away from
litigiousness. We have to be able to deal with the train wreck of
lives like my sister's within the family."

                              __________
                              Every Year
Every year I send a birthday card to my daughter -- thinking, hoping
-- this year it will be different. Surely, one day her heart will
begin to melt. Then a few days later I find the envelope in my
mailbox marked "Return to Sender." You know what that "ouch" feels
like.
    I hope that many families have been restored to love and unity and
may God bless the Foundation for all it has done for our lost sons and
daughters.
                                                        A waiting mom.
                         ____________________
                         SATIRE SATIRE SATIRE
                              Turnabout
                     Mirror, mirror, on the wall,
                  Who is the greatest victim of all?
Hello, my name is Sue. I am the adult parent of a toxic adult child of
functional nurturing. I have been abused by my toxic child from age
45, when he severed relations with his family and friends, to the
present. I am currently working to heal my wounded inner adult.
    I am a survivor today because, through a recovery program of many
steps, I have been able to maintain denial. I believe my child will
return to his family. Until then, I will focus my rage on his abusive
therapist.
    No matter who abused me, somebody neglected me. Through my program
of recovery, I am doing the important work of locating and labeling
perpetrators: my child, the therapist, the recovery group, the State
of New York Psychological Licensing Board. I am considering filing
suit against these for emotional incest.
    Since I am recovering, everyone needs to understand me. I will
need to maintain more eye contact, more intimacy, and to receive love
in new ways, most especially from my toxic child. Only through these
manipulations can I heal from the shame of what has happened to my
family.
    Could You be the parent of a toxic adult child of functional
nurturing? Can you answer yes to tow or more of the following
questions?

  __ My Child sometimes forgets my birthday.
  __ My Child chronically failed to clean his room to my standards.
  __ My Child spent his allowance on MADD magazine, for longer than a
     year.
  __ My Child was late to potty-train.
  __ My Child refused to attend Sunday School by the seventh grade.
  __ My Child said, "I hate you," more than two times between ages two
     - four.
  __ My Child ate candy without permission.
  __ My Child stayed out beyond his curfew, more than twice, from ages
     15-17.
  __ My Child sucked his thumb.
  __ My Child lost a tooth before age five.
  __ My Child failed to send thank-you notes to his grandmother.

If you have answered "yes" to two or more of the above statements, you
are the adult parent of an adult toxic child. Buy this book to find
out how and where to get therapy to discover the real Parent Within.

             ____________________________________________
             What I Would Say if My Child Read My Letters
Dear Son,

I think of you, as the day goes along. My thoughts go to you in the
morning, when you will be getting ready to drive to work; I think of
you at many moments during the day, and as the day draws to its
close. I pray that you may be safe as you drive, that there may be
moments and people in the day that give you joy, and I bless you. It
is very often very hard not to hear from you, but I only want that you
be well and life be good to you. I so want you to believe this. It
would be healing for you and me.
    When I think back over the years, as I do, so many things stand
out. How much you gave me with insights, with help, with being you, a
wonderful human being. You were so good using your hands with amazing
dexterity that said so much about your creative mind. I was so proud
of you. But I probably never thanked you enough for all you did, or
you did not think it was enough, but could not express it.
    May you have so much joy in your life that it will one day have
blotted out all anger. That is my prayer.
                                                              A Mother
                           ________________
                           No Understanding
My husband and I went to the FMSF Conference in Chicago last December.
While the trip was well worth while to meet again members from around
the nation, to hear wonderful speakers, and to hear the progress in
many personal stories, we are still aware of the slowness and lack of
definitive response from the professions that did the damage to our
families. No one still has any real answers on reconciliation with
full understanding by all family members except in a fraction of the
cases. Without nationally publicized retraction with full disclosure
from the professions responsible, most of our families will never be
fully reconciled. We do thank the professionals associated with FMSF
with all our hearts for the supreme effort that has been made on our
behalf.
                                                                 A Mom
                   ________________________________
                   Is the FMS Problem Disappearing?
                            An Observation
We have had two new contacts this year; however, neither were parents
accused by adult children decades delayed. One was a newly accused in
a divorce case. The second was a young man in his late twenties who
was accused after a patient had gone through recovered memory therapy
with a colleague. He was an intern in a psychiatric hospital at the
time. He was convicted. Later he was denied parole because he refuses
to take therapy for behavior of which he is not guilty.
                                           A California FMSF Volunteer
                        ______________________
                        Thoughts From A Sister
I have two sisters with memories that I believe are not literally
true, but which have led to a field day of self-pity, blame and
suffering. I am trying to stay in touch both with them and with our
parents. My thinking is influenced by my having once been in therapy
that involved recovered memories, hypnosis, and axiomatic blame of
families, though before the sex-abuse fad. I went home twenty years
ago and told my parents they had never loved me, The psychic images
which led to such a perverse conclusion had been overstimulated by
well-meaning, ignorant therapists and then given literal
interpretations rather than recognized for the emotional value which
they really held. I collaborated fully in this disaster. Though
everyone suffered, I had to take the consequences and change.
    This abuse thing has been going on for three years in our family:
first shock, emergency resuscitation of the parents, attempts to avert
the onset of a nuclear winter, despair, and horror at the degrading
desire for victim status to which women are collaborating to reduce
themselves. I see that it is not going to be over soon.
    For families of women desperate to be seen as victims, the
practical question is, "How is she ever going to be able to climb back
in from the limb she is out on?" A few will be capable of recantation,
craven or courageous. What about the rest? If we fight on the ground
of "It's true...It's false," we may win the battle, but I'm afraid
that we won't win back our sisters. I don't think the spell on a woman
is likely to be broken by seeing her as a victim of her therapist
rather than her family.
    We can't fail to insist that the memories are false when they are
false; they have to be discredited, like the rewriting of family
history based on self-pity or blame. They're bad dreams, apparently
contagious; plenty of therapists appear to be thoroughly infected, and
quite careless about spreading the disease. But even a nightmare, and
especially a dangerous one, more especially an epidemic of nightmares,
is worthy of respect.
    The problem we're faced with is a kind of fundamentalism: "I had a
flashback, therefore it happened." The solution must include a refusal
to oversimplify, a tolerance for ambiguity, a willingness to seek
meanings that transcend the literal, and an attempt to learn the
symbolic language of the psyche. Because so many "professionals" have
proved inadequate to this challenge, it's been thrown in the faces of
families.
                                                      A patient sister

 ______________________________SIDEBAR_______________________________
/                                                                    \
|                             A Proposal                             |
|                                                                    |
| "The American Judicature Society proposed the creation of an       |
| `Innocence Commission' that would study why the legal system has   |
| failed in known cases of wrongful conviction. After all, look what |
| the National Transportation Safety Board does when a plane         |
| crashes. Few expenses are spared as every aspect of the crash is   |
| examined. Not long ago, I proposed an analogous `National Memory   |
| Safety Board' that might concentrate specifically on memory        |
| problems that have led to injustice. If the travesties of the past |
| few decades were thoroughly examined side-by-side with scientific  |
| knowledge on memory, we would all benefit. It would be too late    |
| for the family of Steve Titus, who died of a heart attack at the   |
| age of 35 after being falsely convicted of rape. It would be too   |
| late for the many death-row prisoners who have recently been       |
| exonerated by DNA evidence. It would be too late for the scores of |
| innocent defendants who have had to face civil litigation over     |
| false claims of satanic ritual abuse and other dubious charges."   |
|                                                         Loftus, E. |
|          Our changeable memories: Legal and practical implications |
|                 Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2003. 4 (3),  231-234 |
\____________________________________________________________________/


**********************************************************************
*                           N O T I C E S                            *
**********************************************************************
*                                                                    *
*                 THE ILLINOIS-WISCONSIN FMS SOCIETY                 *
*                      CONFERENCE OCT. 4, 2003                       *
*                                                                    *
* The Illinois-Wisconsin FMS Society will hold their annual all day  *
* conference on Saturday, October 4, 2003 in familiar quarters at    *
* the DoubleTree in Glenview, IL.                                    *
*                                                                    *
* The tentative theme of the meeting: is "Overcoming Illusions." and *
* our featured speaker will be well-known psychiatrist Carol North,  *
* M.D., of the Washington University, St. Louis,                     *
*                                                                    *
* Those of you who attended the national conference last fall will   *
* recall Dr. North gave a stimulating presentation on her and her    *
* colleague's efforts to get the American Psychiatric Association to *
* improve their statement on the false memory problem.               *
*                                                                    *
* The title of Dr. North's talk next fall will be "The Courage to    *
* Heal for Real: A Recanter Who Told It All" The talk will deal with *
* the transformation of a patient who came to her as an accuser and  *
* who at the end of therapy with Dr. North became a recanter.        *
*                                                                    *
* We will also have other speakers, a parent panel, probably the     *
* screening of a new documentary on the FMS problem and a round      *
* table. We are trying to make a special push to have families get   *
* siblings to attend this conference.                                *
*                                                                    *
*                           SAVE THE DATE                            *
*                          October 4, 2003                           *
*                                                                    *
**********************************************************************
*                    ATTACHMENT THERAPY ON TRIAL:                    *
*             The Torture and Death of Candace Newmaker              *
*                                                                    *
*              Jean Mercer, Larry Sarner and Linda Rosa              *
*                       Praeger, May 30, 2003                        *
*                                                                    *
* All three authors assisted the prosecution in the "rebirthing"     *
* trial that resulted in historic 16-year sentences for therapists   *
* Connell Watkins and Julie Ponder.                                  *
**********************************************************************
*                                                                    *
*          SCIENCE and PSEUDOSCIENCE in CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY          *
*                                                                    *
*         S. O. Lilienfeld, S.J. Lynn and  J.M. Lohr (eds.)          *
*                  New York: Guilford Press (2003)                   *
*                                                                    *
*                         Highly recommended                         *
*                                                                    *
**********************************************************************
*           EYE MOVEMENT DESENSITIZATION and REPROCESSING            *
*                           Devilly, G.J.                            *
*                                                                    *
*      A Chronology of Its Development and Scientific Standing       *
*  Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice, 2002 1 (2) 113-138   *
*                                                                    *
*                         Highly recommended                         *
**********************************************************************
*                                                                    *
*                Annual Meeting of Ontario and Quebec                *
*                Families, Friends and Professionals                 *
*                                                                    *
*                         HAS BEEN POSTPONED                         *
*                                                                    *
**********************************************************************
*                       THE RUTHERFORD FAMILY                        *
*                       SPEAKS TO FMS FAMILIES                       *
*                                                                    *
* The video made by the Rutherford family is the most popular video  *
* of FMSF families. It covers the complete story from accusation, to *
* retraction and reconciliation. Family members describe the things  *
* they did to cope and to help reunite. Of particular interest are   *
* Beth Rutherford's comments about what her family did that helped   *
* her to retract and return.                                         *
*                   To order video send request to                   *
*                    FMSF Video,   Rt. 1 Box 510                     *
*                       Burkeville, TX  75932                        *
*                          $10.00 per tape                           *
*                     Canada add $4.00 per tape                      *
*                Other countries add $10.00 per tape                 *
*                       Make checks payable to                       *
*                           FMS Foundation                           *
**********************************************************************
*                                                                    *
*                                FREE                                *
*             "Recovered Memories: Are They Reliable?"               *
*     Call or write the FMS Foundation for pamphlets. Be sure to     *
*     include your address and the number of pamphlets you need.     *
*                                                                    *
**********************************************************************
*                         PSYCHOLOGY ASTRAY:                         *
*  Fallacies in Studies of "Repressed Memory" and Childhood Trauma   *
*                   by Harrison G. Pope, Jr., M.D.                   *
*                            Upton Books                             *
*                                                                    *
* This is an indispensable guide for any person who wants or needs   *
* to understand the research claims about recovered memories. A      *
* review by Stuart Sutherland in the prestigious Nature magazine     *
* (July 17, 1997) says that the book is a "model of clear thinking   *
* and clear exposition." The book is an outgrowth of the "Focus on   *
* Science" columns that have appeared in this newsletter.            *
*                      To Order:  800-232-7477                       *
**********************************************************************
*                                                                    *
*                          "ASK AN EXPERT,"                          *
*                         This American Life                         *
*                           June 14, 2002                            *
*                                                                    *
* About people who turned to experts and got horrible advice.        *
* Features the Rutherfords and a retracting therapist.               *
*                                                                    *
*               www.thislife.org.   tapes@thislife.org               *
*            Tapes: "Ask an Expert," # 215, 6/14/02, $12             *
*                      Producer: Elyse Spiegel                       *
*                                                                    *
**********************************************************************
*                      WEB  SITES  OF  INTEREST                      *
*                                                                    *
*            FALSE MEMORY GROUP in SCANDANAVIA WEB SITE              *
*                     www.enigma.se/info/FFI.htm                     *
*                       contact: Janet Hagbom                        *
*                                                                    *
*                    MARK PENDERGRAST'S WEB SITE                     *
*              contains excerpts from many chapters in               *
*                         Victims of Memory.                         *
*                      www.nasw.org/users/markp                      *
*                                                                    *
*                         PAUL McHUGH, M.D.                          *
*                    Perspectives for Psychiatry                     *
*         www.hopkinsmedicine.org/jhhpsychiatry/perspec1.htm         *
*                                                                    *
*                 ccomp.uark.edu/~lampinen/read.html                 *
*            The Lampinen Lab False Memory Reading Group             *
*                       University of Arkansas                       *
*                                                                    *
*                    www.exploratorium.edu/memory                    *
*                  The Exploratorium Memory Exhibit                  *
*                                                                    *
*                        www.ctnow.com/memory                        *
*                   Hartford Courant memory series                   *
*                                                                    *
*                        www.tmdArchives.org                         *
*                     The Memory Debate Archives                     *
*                                                                    *
*                         www.francefms.com                          *
*                      French language website                       *
*                                                                    *
*                       www.StopBadTherapy.com                       *
*               Contains phone numbers of professional               *
*                 regulatory boards in all 50 states                 *
*                                                                    *
*                        www.IllinoisFMS.org                         *
*                   Illinois-Wisconsin FMS Society                   *
*                                                                    *
*                      www.ltech.net/OHIOarmhp                       *
*                             Ohio Group                             *
*                                                                    *
*                          www.afma.asn.au                           *
*                Australian False Memory Association.                *
*                                                                    *
*                          www.bfms.org.uk                           *
*                    British False Memory Society                    *
*                                                                    *
*                    www.geocities.com/retractor                     *
*            This site is run by Laura Pasley (retractor)            *
*                                                                    *
*                  www.geocities.com/therapyletters                  *
*             This site is run by Deb David (retractor)              *
*                                                                    *
*                 www.sirs.com/uptonbooks/index.htm                  *
*                            Upton Books                             *
*                                                                    *
*              www.angelfire.com/tx/recoveredmemories/               *
*                   Having trouble locating books                    *
*               about the recovered memory phenomenon?               *
*                     Recovered Memory Bookstore                     *
*                                                                    *
*                 www.religioustolerance.org/sra.htm                 *
*               Information about Satanic Ritual Abuse               *
*                                                                    *
*                        www.angryparents.net                        *
*                   Parents Against Cruel Therapy                    *
*                                                                    *
*                    www.geocities.com/newcosanz                     *
*                       New Zealand FMS Group                        *
*                                                                    *
*                        www.werkgroepwfh.nl                         *
*                       Netherlands FMS Group                        *
*                                                                    *
*                      www.falseallegation.org                       *
*           National Child Abuse Defense & Resource Center           *
*                                                                    *
*                     LEGAL WEBSITES OF INTEREST                     *
*                         www.caseassist.com                         *
*                          www.findlaw.com                           *
*                        www.legalengine.com                         *
*                          www.accused.com                           *
*                        www.abuse-excuse.com                        *
**********************************************************************

               _____________________________________
                F M S    B U L L E T I N    B O A R D

Contacts & Meetings:
_____________
UNITED STATES

ALABAMA
  See Georgia
ALASKA
  Kathleen 907-333-5248
ARIZONA
  Phoenix
        Pat 480-396-9420
ARKANSAS
  Little Rock
        Al & Lela 870-363-4368
CALIFORNIA
  Sacramento
        Joanne & Gerald 916-933-3655
        Jocelyn 530-873-0919
  San Francisco & North Bay 
        Charles 415-984-6626 (am); 415-435-9618 (pm)
  San Francisco & South Bay
        Eric 408-738-0469
  East Bay Area
        Judy 925-952-4853
  Central Coast
        Carole 805-967-8058
  Palm Desert
        Eileen and Jerry 909-659-9636
  Central Orange County - 1st Fri. (MO) @ 7pm
        Chris & Alan 949-733-2925
  Covina Area 
        Floyd & Libby 626-330-2321
  San Diego Area 
        Dee 760-439-4630
COLORADO
  Colorado Springs
        Doris 719-488-9738
CONNECTICUT
  S. New England
        Earl 203-329-8365 or
        Paul 203-458-9173
FLORIDA
  Date/Boward
        Madeline 954-966-4FMS
  Central Florida - Please call for mtg. time
        John & Nancy 352-750-5446
  Sarasota
        Francis & Sally 941-342-8310
  Tampa Bay Area
        Bob & Janet 727-856-7091
GEORGIA
  Atlanta 
        Wallie & Jill 770-971-8917
ILLINOIS
  Chicago & Suburbs - 1st Sun. (MO)
        Eileen 847-985-7693 or
        Liz & Roger 847-827-1056
  Peoria
        Bryant & Lynn 309-674-2767
INDIANA
  Indiana Assn. for Responsible Mental Health Practices
        Pat 260-489-9987
        Helen 574-753-2779
KANSAS
  Wichita - Meeting as called
        Pat 785-738-4840
KENTUCKY
  Louisville- Last Sun. (MO) @ 2pm
        Bob 502-367-1838
MAINE
  Rumford
        Carolyn 207-364-8891
  Portland
        Wally & Boby 207-878-9812
MASSACHUSETTS/NEW ENGLAND
   Andover - 2nd Sun. (MO) @ 1pm
        Frank 978-263-9795
MICHIGAN
  Grand Rapids Area-Jenison - 1st Mon. (MO)
        Bill & Marge 616-383-0382
  Greater Detroit Area
        Nancy 248-642-8077
  Ann Arbor
        Martha 734-439-4055
MINNESOTA 
        Terry & Collette 507-642-3630
        Dan & Joan 651-631-2247
MISSOURI
  Kansas City  -  Meeting as called
        Pat 785-738-4840
  St. Louis Area  -  call for meeting time
        Karen 314-432-8789
  Springfield - 4th Sat. Jan,Apr,Jul,Oct @12:30pm
        Tom 417-753-4878
        Roxie 417-781-2058
MONTANA
  Lee & Avone 406-443-3189
NEW HAMPSHIRE
  Mark 802-872-0847
NEW JERSEY 
  Southern
        Sally 609-927-5343
  Northern
        Nancy 973-729-1433 
NEW MEXICO
  Albuquerque  -2nd Sat. (bi-MO) @1 pm
  Southwest Room - Presbyterian Hospital
        Maggie 505-662-7521 (after 6:30 pm)
        Sy 505-758-0726
NEW YORK 
  Manhattan
        Michael 212-481-6655
  Westchester, Rockland, etc.
        Barbara 914-761-3627
  Upstate/Albany Area
        Elaine 518-399-5749
NORTH CAROLINA
  Susan 704-538-7202
OHIO
  Cincinnati
        Bob 513-541-0816 or 513-541-5272
  Cleveland
        Bob & Carole 440-356-4544
OKLAHOMA
  Oklahoma City
        Dee 405-942-0531
  Tulsa
        Jim 918-582-7363
OREGON
  Portland area
        Kathy 503-655-1587
PENNSYLVANIA
  Harrisburg
        Paul & Betty 717-691-7660
  Pittsburgh
        Rick & Renee 412-563-5509
  Montrose
        John 717-278-2040
  Wayne (includes S. NJ) - 2nd Sat. (MO)
        Jim & Jo 610-783-0396
TENNESSEE
  Nashville - Wed. (MO) @1pm
        Kate 615-665-1160
TEXAS 
    Houston
        Jo or Beverly 713-464-8970
   El Paso
        Mary Lou 915-591-0271
UTAH
        Keith 801-467-0669
VERMONT 
        Mark 802-872-0847
VIRGINIA
        Sue 703-273-2343
WASHINGTON
        Kathy 503-557-7118
WISCONSIN
        Katie & Leo 414-476-0285 or
        Susanne & John 608-427-3686
WYOMING
        Alan & Lorinda 307-322-4170
_____________
INTERNATIONAL

BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA
  Vancouver & Mainland 
        Lloyd 250-741-8941
  Victoria & Vancouver Island
        John 250-721-3219
MANITOBA
        Roma 204-275-5723
ONTARIO, CANADA 
  London 
        Adriaan 519-471-6338
  Ottawa
        Eileen 613-836-3294
  Warkworth
        Ethel 705-924-2546
  Burlington
        Ken & Marina 905-637-6030
  Waubaushene
        Paula 705-543-0318
QUEBEC, CANADA 
  St. Andre Est.
        Mavis 450-537-8187
AUSTRALIA
  Evelyn 
        everei@adam.com.au
ISRAEL
  FMS ASSOCIATION fax-(972) 2-625-9282 
NETHERLANDS
  Task Force FMS of Werkgroep Fictieve 
  Herinneringen
        Anna (31) 20-693-5692
NEW ZEALAND
        Colleen (09) 416-7443
SWEDEN
        Ake Moller FAX (48) 431-217-90
UNITED KINGDOM
  The British False Memory Society
        Madeline (44) 1225 868-682

      __________________________________________________________
      Deadline for the September/October Newsletter is August 15
                  Meeting notices MUST be in writing
    and should be sent no later than TWO MONTHS PRIOR TO MEETING.

+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
|          Do you have access to e-mail?  Send a message to          |
|                         pjf@cis.upenn.edu                          |
| if  you wish to receive electronic versions of this newsletter and |
| notices of radio and television  broadcasts  about  FMS.  All  the |
| message need say is "add to the FMS-News". It would be useful, but |
| not necessary,  if you add your full name (all addresses and names |
| will remain strictly confidential).                                |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
**********************************************************************
  The False Memory Syndrome Foundation is a qualified 501(c)3 corpora-
tion  with  its  principal offices in Philadelphia and governed by its
Board of Directors.  While it encourages participation by its  members
in  its  activities,  it must be understood that the Foundation has no
affiliates and that no other organization or person is  authorized  to
speak for the Foundation without the prior written approval of the Ex-
ecutive Director. All membership dues and contributions to the Founda-
tion must be forwarded to the Foundation for its disposition.
**********************************************************************

Pamela Freyd, Ph.D.,  Executive Director

FMSF Scientific and Professional Advisory Board,          July 1, 2003

AARON T. BECK, M.D., D.M.S., U of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;
TERENCE W. CAMPBELL, Ph.D., Clinical and Forensic Psychology, 
    Sterling Heights, MI;
ROSALIND CARTWRIGHT, Ph.D., Rush Presbyterian St. Luke's Medical
    Center, Chicago, IL;
JEAN CHAPMAN, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI;
LOREN CHAPMAN, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI;
FREDERICK C. CREWS, Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, CA;
ROBYN M. DAWES, Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA;
DAVID F. DINGES, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;
HENRY C. ELLIS, Ph.D., University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM;
FRED H. FRANKEL, MBChB, DPM, Harvard University Medical School;
GEORGE K. GANAWAY, M.D., Emory University of Medicine, Atlanta, GA;
MARTIN GARDNER, Author, Hendersonville, NC;
ROCHEL GELMAN, Ph.D., Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ;
HENRY GLEITMAN, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;
LILA GLEITMAN, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;
RICHARD GREEN, M.D., J.D., Charing Cross Hospital, London;
DAVID A. HALPERIN, M.D., Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY;
ERNEST HILGARD, Ph.D., (deceased) Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA;
JOHN HOCHMAN, M.D., UCLA Medical School, Los Angeles, CA;
DAVID S. HOLMES, Ph.D., University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS;
PHILIP S. HOLZMAN, Ph.D., Harvard University, Cambridge, MA;
ROBERT A. KARLIN, Ph.D. , Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ;
HAROLD LIEF, M.D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;
ELIZABETH LOFTUS, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, CA;
SUSAN L. McELROY, M.D., University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH;
PAUL McHUGH, M.D., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD;
HAROLD MERSKEY, D.M., University of Western Ontario, London, Canada;
SPENCER HARRIS MORFIT, Author, Westford, MA;
ULRIC NEISSER, Ph.D., Cornell University, Ithaca, NY;
RICHARD OFSHE, Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, CA;
EMILY CAROTA ORNE, B.A., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA;
MARTIN ORNE, M.D., Ph.D., (deceased) U of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
LOREN PANKRATZ, Ph.D., Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR;
CAMPBELL PERRY, Ph.D., (deceased) Concordia University, Montreal, Canada;
MICHAEL A. PERSINGER, Ph.D., Laurentian University, Ontario, Canada;
AUGUST T. PIPER, Jr., M.D., Seattle, WA;
HARRISON POPE, Jr., M.D., Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA;
JAMES RANDI, Author and Magician, Plantation, FL;
HENRY L. ROEDIGER, III, Ph.D. ,Washington University, St. Louis, MO;
CAROLYN SAARI, Ph.D., Loyola University, Chicago, IL;
THEODORE SARBIN, Ph.D., University of California, Santa Cruz, CA;
THOMAS A. SEBEOK, Ph.D., (deceased) U of Indiana, Bloomington, IN;
MICHAEL A. SIMPSON, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., M.R.C, D.O.M., Center for
    Psychosocial & Traumatic Stress, Pretoria, South Africa;
MARGARET SINGER, Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, CA;
RALPH SLOVENKO, J.D., Ph.D., Wayne State University Law School,
    Detroit, MI;
DONALD SPENCE, Ph.D., Robert Wood Johnson Medical Ctr, Piscataway, NJ;
JEFFREY VICTOR, Ph.D., Jamestown Community College, Jamestown, NY;
HOLLIDA WAKEFIELD, M.A., Institute of Psychological Therapies,
    Northfield, MN;
CHARLES A. WEAVER, III, Ph.D. Baylor University, Waco, TX

**********************************************************************
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                    THANK YOU FOR YOUR GENEROSITY.
**********************************************************************